Or Graur

University of Santiago, Chile, CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile

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Publications (24)66.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations of the site of the Type-Ia supernova SN2011fe in the nearby galaxy M101, obtained about one year prior to the event, in a narrow band centred on the HeII 4686 \AA{} emission line. In a "single-degenerate" progenitor scenario, the hard photon flux from an accreting white dwarf (WD), burning hydrogen on its surface over $\sim1$ Myr should, in principle, create a HeIII Str\"{o}mgren sphere or shell surrounding the WD. Depending on the WD luminosity, the interstellar density, and the velocity of an outflow from the WD, the HeIII region could appear unresolved, extended, or as a ring, with a range of possible surface brightnesses. We find no trace of HeII 4686 \AA{} line emission in the HST data. Using simulations, we set $2\sigma$ upper limits on the HeII 4686 \AA{} luminosity of $L_{\rm HeII} < 3.4 \times 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for a point source, corresponding to an emission region of radius $r < 1.8$ pc. The upper limit for an extended source is $L_{\rm HeII} < 1.7 \times 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, corresponding to an extended region with $r\sim11$ pc. The largest detectable shell, given an interstellar-medium density of 1 cm$^{-3}$, has a radius of $\sim6$ pc. Our results argue against the presence, within the $\sim10^5$ yr prior to the explosion, of a supersoft X-ray source of luminosity $L_{\rm bol} \ge 3 \times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$, or of a super-Eddington accreting WD that produces an outflowing wind capable of producing cavities with radii of 2-6 pc.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ~0.25 deg^2 with ~900 HST orbits spread across 5 fields over 3 years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SN) of all types, out to z~2.5. We classify ~24 of these as Type Ia SN (SN Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of 6 SN). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z=2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SN that exploded when the universe was only ~3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SN Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SNIa fraction is f=0.48 +0.08 -0.09 (stat) +0.04 -0.13 (syst), consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t^{-1} power law for all times t>40 Myr. However, a mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. When the rate measurements from HST surveys are examined in isolation, the rarity of SN Ia detections at z>1.5 hints that prompt progenitors in the early universe may in fact be relatively rare, accounting for as little as ~5% of all SN Ia explosions - though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report observations of three gravitationally lensed supernovae (SNe) in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program. These objects, SN CLO12Car (z = 1.28), SN CLN12Did (z = 0.85), and SN CLA11Tib (z = 1.14), are located behind three different clusters, MACSJ1720.2+3536 (z = 0.391), RXJ1532.9+3021 (z = 0.345), and Abell 383 (z = 0.187), respectively. Each SN was detected in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and infrared images. Based on photometric classification, we find that SNe CLO12Car and CLN12Did are likely to be Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), while SN CLA11Tib is probably a core-collapse SN. Using multi-color light-curve fits to determine a standardized SN Ia luminosity distance, we infer that SN CLO12Car was approximately 1.0 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia at a similar redshift and ascribe this to gravitational lens magnification. Similarly, SN CLN12Did is approximately 0.2 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia. We derive independent estimates of the predicted magnification from CLASH strong+weak lensing maps of the clusters: 0.83 +/- 0.16 mag for SN CLO12Car, 0.28 +/- 0.08 mag for SN CLN12Did, and 0.43 +/- 0.11 mag for SN CLA11Tib. The two SNe Ia provide a new test of the cluster lens model predictions: we find that the magnifications based on the SN Ia brightness and those predicted by the lens maps are consistent. Our results herald the promise of future observations of samples of cluster-lensed SNe Ia (from the ground or space) to help illuminate the dark-matter distribution in clusters of galaxies, through the direct determination of absolute magnifications.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ~11 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of -1.00 +0.06(0.09) -0.06(0.10) (statistical) +0.12 -0.08 (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at a >99% significance level.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift $z = 1.914$ from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the \textit{Hubble Space Telescope (HST)}. This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify this object as a SN\,Ia by comparing its light curve and spectrum with those of a large sample of Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae (SNe). Its apparent magnitude is consistent with that expected from the $\Lambda$CDM concordance cosmology. We discuss the use of spectral evidence for classification of $z > 1.5$ SNe\,Ia using {\it HST} grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe\,II, but distinguishing between SNe\,Ia and SNe\,Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic classification methods can aid the determination of SN rates and cosmological parameters from the full high-redshift CANDELS SN sample.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 768(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Or Graur, D. Maoz
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    ABSTRACT: Type Ia supernovae have been instrumental in revealing the accelerating nature of the Universe's expansion. And yet, we still do not know what kind of stellar system is the progenitor of this type of supernova. The current consensus is that the progenitor is a carbon oxygen white dwarf in a binary system. Different scenarios for the nature of the companion predict different forms of the Type Ia supernova delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a burst of star formation and the subsequent supernovae). Using a code that detects and classifies supernovae in galaxy spectra, we have discovered 90 Type Ia supernovae among the ~700,000 galaxies in the 7th SDSS Data Release. Using this sample, we measure the Type Ia supernova rate per unit mass and confirm, at a median redshift of 0.1, that more massive galaxies host less Type Ia supernovae than less massive galaxies. We show that this relation can be explained by the combination of galaxy "downsizing" (i.e., older galaxies tend to be more massive than younger galaxies) and a power-law DTD with an index of -1. We convert the mass-normalized rate into a volumetric rate at 0.1. By comparing this rate, along with rates from other surveys out to 2, to the cosmic star-formation history, we once again find a power-law DTD with an index of -1. Finally, we use the individual star-formation histories of the SDSS galaxies to recover a "delayed" component of the DTD, which is consistent with values obtained by other surveys. Our results add to a growing body of evidence that the Type Ia DTD is a power law with index ~-1, which implies a second white dwarf as the binary companion.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is a 524-orbit multi-cycle treasury program to observe 25 galaxy clusters each in 16 broadband filters with WFC3 and ACS. One of the many science goals of CLASH is the detection and analysis of supernovae at both intermediate and high redshifts. We present HST ACS and WFC3 observations of several high redshift supernovae discovered in the CLASH fields, and discuss results from the supernova light curves and properties of the supernova host galaxies.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) Supernova Survey discovered 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range $1.5<z<2.0$, as determined solely from photometric redshifts of the host galaxies. However, photometric redshifts might be biased, and the SN sample could be contaminated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Unfortunately, measuring spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies in the "redshift desert" 1.5 < z < 2.0 is hard because any prominent emission lines get shifted out of the optical and into the near infrared. Here we report the first robust redshift measurement and classification of hSDF0705.25, an SDF SN Ia host galaxy. Using the X-shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we measure a spectroscopic redshift of 1.5456 +/- 0.0003, consistent with its photometric redshift of 1.552 +/- 0.018. From the strong emission-line spectrum we are able to rule out AGN activity and show that the SN host galaxy is a low-metallicity, star-burst dwarf galaxy, similar to typical SN Ia hosts at lower redshifts. This represents a successful test case for the X-shooter spectrograph and shows that, though still hard, it is now possible to measure robust redshifts for SN host galaxies in the redshift desert.
    11/2012;
  • Or Graur, Dan Maoz
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images of NGC 1365 in F606W (~ V band, 560 s total) from 2001. We detect no sources within a 0.5'' radius of the location of the Type-Ia supernova SN 2012fr (PSN J03333599-3607377, ATel#4523), as determined by registering the HST images with images of the SN by Stu Parker and by Ivan Curtis (see http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/snimages), using two bright stars near the SN.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We precisely constrain the inner mass profile of A2261 (z = 0.225) for the first time and determine that this cluster is not "overconcentrated" as found previously, implying a formation time in agreement with ΛCDM expectations. These results are based on multiple strong-lensing analyses of new 16-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble. Combining this with revised weak-lensing analyses of Subaru wide-field imaging with five-band Subaru + KPNO photometry, we place tight new constraints on the halo virial mass M vir = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1015M ☉h –170 (within r vir 3 Mpc h –170) and concentration c vir = 6.2 ± 0.3 when assuming a spherical halo. This agrees broadly with average c(M, z) predictions from recent ΛCDM simulations, which span 5 c 8. Our most significant systematic uncertainty is halo elongation along the line of sight (LOS). To estimate this, we also derive a mass profile based on archival Chandra X-ray observations and find it to be ~35% lower than our lensing-derived profile at r 2500 ~ 600 kpc. Agreement can be achieved by a halo elongated with a ~2:1 axis ratio along our LOS. For this elongated halo model, we find M vir = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 1015M ☉h –170 and c vir = 4.6 ± 0.2, placing rough lower limits on these values. The need for halo elongation can be partially obviated by non-thermal pressure support and, perhaps entirely, by systematic errors in the X-ray mass measurements. We estimate the effect of background structures based on MMT/Hectospec spectroscopic redshifts and find that these tend to lower M vir further by ~7% and increase c vir by ~5%.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 757(1):22. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Or Graur, Dan Maoz
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    ABSTRACT: Using a method to discover and classify supernovae (SNe) in galaxy spectra, we find 90 Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) and 10 Type II SNe among the ~700,000 galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 that have VESPA-derived star-formation histories (SFHs). We use the SN Ia sample to measure SN Ia rates per unit stellar mass. We confirm, at the median redshift of the sample, z = 0.1, the inverse dependence on galaxy mass of the SN Ia rate per unit mass, previously reported by Li et al. (2011b) for a local sample. We further confirm, following Kistler et al. (2011), that this relation can be explained by the combination of galaxy "downsizing" and a power-law delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a hypothetical burst of star formation and the subsequent SN Ia explosions) with an index of -1, inherent to the double-degenerate progenitor scenario. We use the method of Maoz et al. (2011) to recover the DTD by comparing the number of SNe Ia hosted by each galaxy in our sample with the VESPA-derived SFH of the stellar population within the spectral aperture. In this galaxy sample, which is dominated by old and massive galaxies, we recover a "delayed" component to the DTD of 4.5 +/- 0.6 (statistical) +0.3 -0.5 (systematic) X 10^-14 SNe Msun^-1 yr^-1 for delays in the range > 2.4 Gyr. The mass-normalized SN Ia rate, averaged over all masses and redshifts in our galaxy sample, is R(Ia,M,z=0.1) = 0.10 +/- 0.01 (statistical) +/- 0.01 (systematic) SNuM, and the volumetric rate is R(Ia,V,z=0.1) = 0.247 +0.029 -0.026 (statistical) +0.016 -0.031 (systematic) X 10^-4 SNe yr^-1 Mpc^-3. This rate is consistent with the rates and rate evolution from other recent SN Ia surveys, which together also indicate a ~t^-1 DTD.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 430(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Or Graur, Dan Maoz
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images of NGC 4424 in F606W (~ V band, 600 s) and F814W (~ I band, 600 s) from 2001. We detect no point sources within a 2'' radius of the location of the Type-Ia SN 2012cg (CBET 3111, R.A.=12h27m12.83s, Decl.=+09d25'13.1"). By planting fake point sources at the location of the SN, we obtain limits of 25.5 mag (F606W)and 25.8 mag (F814W).
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 06/2012;
  • Or Graur, Dan Maoz
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    ABSTRACT: Analyzing an archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 300 s image of NGC 3166 in F547M (~ V band) obtained on October 23 1994, we detect no point sources within a 2'' radius of the location of the Type-Ic SN 2012cw (CBET 3148, R.A.=10h13m47.95s, Decl.=+03d26'02.6") to a 3-sigma limit of 24.3 mag. NGC 3166 is likely interacting with NGC 3169, which hosted the type-Ia SN 2003cg, indicating a distance modulus of 31.25+/-0.44...
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 06/2012;
  • VizieR Online Data Catalog. 06/2012; 219:90025.
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    ABSTRACT: The SDF (J2000 position: 13:24:39+27:29:26) was first imaged by Kashikawa et al. (2004PASJ...56.1011K) with the Suprime-Cam camera on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We reimaged the field on four separate epochs (ut dates are used throughout this paper): 2005 March 5 and 6 (epoch 2, analysed by P07b); 2007 February 12-15 (epoch 3); 2007 May 15 and 16 (epoch 4) and 2008 June 1-4 (epoch 5). (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is a 524-orbit Multi-Cycle Treasury Program to use the gravitational lensing properties of 25 galaxy clusters to accurately constrain their mass distributions. The survey, described in detail in this paper, will definitively establish the degree of concentration of dark matter in the cluster cores, a key prediction of structure formation models. The CLASH cluster sample is larger and less biased than current samples of space-based imaging studies of clusters to similar depth, as we have minimized lensing-based selection that favors systems with overly dense cores. Specifically, 20 CLASH clusters are solely X-ray selected. The X-ray-selected clusters are massive (kT > 5 keV) and, in most cases, dynamically relaxed. Five additional clusters are included for their lensing strength (θEin > 35'' at zs = 2) to optimize the likelihood of finding highly magnified high-z (z > 7) galaxies. A total of 16 broadband filters, spanning the near-UV to near-IR, are employed for each 20-orbit campaign on each cluster. These data are used to measure precise (σ z ~ 0.02(1 + z)) photometric redshifts for newly discovered arcs. Observations of each cluster are spread over eight epochs to enable a search for Type Ia supernovae at z > 1 to improve constraints on the time dependence of the dark energy equation of state and the evolution of supernovae. We present newly re-derived X-ray luminosities, temperatures, and Fe abundances for the CLASH clusters as well as a representative source list for MACS1149.6+2223 (z = 0.544).
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2012; 199(2):25. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SNIa) at redshift z=1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SNIa with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z>1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z>1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z~2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 746(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We precisely constrain the inner mass profile of Abell 2261 (z=0.225) for the first time and determine this cluster is not "over-concentrated" as found previously, implying a formation time in agreement with {\Lambda}CDM expectations. These results are based on strong lensing analyses of new 16-band HST imaging obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Combining this with revised weak lensing analyses of Subaru wide field imaging with 5-band Subaru + KPNO photometry, we place tight new constraints on the halo virial mass M_vir = 2.2\pm0.2\times10^15 M\odot/h70 (within r \approx 3 Mpc/h70) and concentration c = 6.2 \pm 0.3 when assuming a spherical halo. This agrees broadly with average c(M,z) predictions from recent {\Lambda}CDM simulations which span 5 <~ <~ 8. Our most significant systematic uncertainty is halo elongation along the line of sight. To estimate this, we also derive a mass profile based on archival Chandra X-ray observations and find it to be ~35% lower than our lensing-derived profile at r2500 ~ 600 kpc. Agreement can be achieved by a halo elongated with a ~2:1 axis ratio along our line of sight. For this elongated halo model, we find M_vir = 1.7\pm0.2\times10^15 M\odot/h70 and c_vir = 4.6\pm0.2, placing rough lower limits on these values. The need for halo elongation can be partially obviated by non-thermal pressure support and, perhaps entirely, by systematic errors in the X-ray mass measurements. We estimate the effect of background structures based on MMT/Hectospec spectroscopic redshifts and find these tend to lower Mvir further by ~7% and increase cvir by ~5%.
    01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the inner mass distribution of the relaxed galaxy cluster A383 (z = 0.189), in deep 16 band Hubble Space Telescope/ACS+WFC3 imaging taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) multi-cycle treasury program. Our program is designed to study the dark matter distribution in 25 massive clusters, and balances depth with a wide wavelength coverage, 2000-16000 Å, to better identify lensed systems and generate precise photometric redshifts. This photometric information together with the predictive strength of our strong-lensing analysis method identifies 13 new multiply lensed images and candidates, so that a total of 27 multiple images of nine systems are used to tightly constrain the inner mass profile gradient, dlog Σ/dlog r –0.6 ± 0.1 (r < 160 kpc). We find consistency with the standard distance-redshift relation for the full range spanned by the lensed images, 1.01 < z < 6.03, with the higher-redshift sources deflected through larger angles as expected. The inner mass profile derived here is consistent with the results of our independent weak-lensing analysis of wide-field Subaru images, with good agreement in the region of overlap (~0.7-1 arcmin). Combining weak and strong lensing, the overall mass profile is well fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White profile with M vir = (5.37+0.70 – 0.63 ± 0.26) × 1014 M ☉ h –1 and a relatively high concentration, c vir = 8.77+0.44 – 0.42 ± 0.23, which lies above the standard c-M relation similar to other well-studied clusters. The critical radius of A383 is modest by the standards of other lensing clusters, rE 16 ± 2'' (for zs = 2.55), so the relatively large number of lensed images uncovered here with precise photometric redshifts validates our imaging strategy for the CLASH survey. In total we aim to provide similarly high-quality lensing data for 25 clusters, 20 of which are X-ray-selected relaxed clusters, enabling a precise determination of the representative mass profile free from lensing bias.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2011; 742(2):117. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a strong-lensing analysis of the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 ($z$=0.44) using UV, Optical, and IR, HST/ACS/WFC3 data taken as part of the CLASH multi-cycle treasury program, with VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy for some of the multiply-lensed arcs. The CLASH observations, combined with our mass-model, allow us to identify 47 new multiply-lensed images of 12 distant sources. These images, along with the previously known arc, span the redshift range $1\la z\la5.5$, and thus enable us to derive a detailed mass distribution and to accurately constrain, for the first time, the inner mass-profile of this cluster. We find an inner profile slope of $d\log \Sigma/d\log \theta\simeq -0.55\pm 0.1$ (in the range [1\arcsec, 53\arcsec], or $5\la r \la300$ kpc), as commonly found for relaxed and well-concentrated clusters. Using the many systems uncovered here we derive credible critical curves and Einstein radii for different source redshifts. For a source at $z_{s}\simeq2.5$, the critical curve encloses a large area with an effective Einstein radius of $\theta_{E}=28\pm3\arcsec$, and a projected mass of $1.34\pm0.15\times10^{14} M_{\odot}$. From the current understanding of structure formation in concordance cosmology, these values are relatively high for clusters at $z\sim0.5$, so that detailed studies of the inner mass distribution of clusters such as MACS J1206.2-0847 can provide stringent tests of the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2011; · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7 Citations
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66.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2012
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
    • University of Vienna
      Wien, Vienna, Austria