Judith Maria Wenisch

Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (12)35.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reparixin, a CXCR 1/2 antagonist, has been shown to mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in various organ systems in animals, but data in humans is scarce. The aim of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reparixin to suppress IRI and inflammation in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients received either reparixin or placebo (n=16 in each group) after induction of anesthesia until eight hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We compared markers of systemic and pulmonary inflammation, surrogates of myocardial IRI, and clinical outcomes using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact test. Thirty- and 90-day mortality was 0% in both groups. No side effects were observed in the treatment group. Surgical revision, pleural and pericardial effusion, infection, and atrial fibrillation rates were not different between groups. Reparixin significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophil granulocytes in blood at the beginning (49%, IQR 45;57 vs. 58%, IQR 53;66, P=0.035), end (71%, IQR 67;76 vs. 79%, IQR 71;83, P=0.023), and one hour after CPB (73%, IQR 71;75 vs. 77%, IQR 72;80, P=0.035). Reparixin patients required lesser positive fluid balance during surgery (2575 mL, IQR 2027;3080 vs. 3200 mL, IQR 2928;3778, P=0.029) and during ICU stay (2603 mL, IQR 1023;4288 vs. 4200 mL, IQR 2313;8160, P=0.021). Numerically, more control patients required norepinephrine ≥ 0.11 μg×kg-1 ×min-1 (50% vs. 19%, P=0.063) and dobutamine (50% vs. 25%, P=0.14). Therefore, administration of reparixin in CABG patients appears feasible and safe. It concurrently attenuated postoperative granulocytosis in peripheral blood.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 11/2014; 180(1). DOI:10.1111/cei.12488 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in hospitalized patients are known to be closely related to antibiotic exposure. Although several substances can cause CDI, the risk differs between individual agents. In Vienna and other eastern parts of Austria, CDI ribotype 027 is currently highly prevalent. This ribotype has the characteristic of intrinsic moxifloxacin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesized that moxifloxacin restriction can decrease the number of CDI cases in hospitalized patients. Our antibiotic stewardship (ABS) group applied an information campaign on CDI and formal restriction of moxifloxacin in Wilhelminenspital (Vienna, Austria), a 1,000- bed tertiary care hospital. The preintervention period (period 1) was January through May 2013, and the intervention period (period 2) was June through December 2013. We recorded the defined daily doses (DDD) of moxifloxacin and the number of CDI patients/month. Moxifloxacin use was reduced from a mean (± standard error of the mean [SEM]) of 1,038 ± 109 DDD per month (period 1) to 42 ± 10 DDD per month (period 2) (P = 0.0045). Total antibiotic use was not affected. The mean (±SEM) numbers of CDI cases in period 1 were 59 ± 3 per month and in period 2 were 32 ± 3 per month (46% reduction; P = 0.0044). Reducing moxifloxacin use in combination with providing structured information on CDI was associated with an immediate decrease in CDI rates in this large community teaching hospital.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2014; 58(9). DOI:10.1128/AAC.03006-14 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the industrialized world, followed by infection with norovirus. Using a cohort study design, we compared 90 inpatients with diarrhea due to C. difficile infection (CDI) with 180 inpatients with diarrhea due to other infectious agents (including 55% with norovirus infection) with respect to complications and all-cause mortality. The effects of age, severity of underlying diseases and additional infections were assessed by stratified analyses. Diarrhea recurrence occurred 8.9 (95%CI: 2.9-27.3) times more often in CDI independent of age and severity of comorbidities. The all-cause mortality in CDI patients pre-discharge and at 30 and 180 days, respectively, was 20.0%, 17.0% and 42.3% versus 7.2%, 6.7% and 22.5% in non-CDI diarrhea patients. Among those patients with low comorbidities, who were younger than 65 years and without additional infections, the all-cause pre-discharge, 30-day and 180-day mortality risks were significantly higher for the CDI diarrhea patients than the non-CDI diarrhea patients. This association was not observed among patients with an older age, more severe comorbidities or additional infections. CDI results in higher all-cause mortality than diarrhea due to other infectious agents in younger patients with low comorbidities.
    11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2013.07.010
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the age dependent epidemiology of pneumonia and risk factors for mortality.The data were derived from the Austrian Pneumonia Network (APNET), comprising nine Departments for Internal Medicine with a total of 1,011 hospital beds. All inpatients diagnosed with pneumonia during 2011 were followed until discharge. Identification of microorganisms was performed according to local standard methods. Data of patients < 65 years and ≥ 65 years were compared by Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests. Risk factors for hospital mortality were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses.Overall, 1,956 patients were included. The hospital mortality was 10.4 %, and was higher in patients ≥ 65 (12.7 %) than in patients < 65 years of age (5.0 %; p < 0.001). Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae was the most important pathogen. Enterobacteriacaeae were revealed significantly more often in patients ≥ 65 years. Age ≥ 65 years, chronic heart failure (CHF) and neurological disease increased the risk of hospital mortality 1.96 (95 % CI 1.19-3.20), 1.59 (95 % CI 1.10-2.29), and 1.7 (95 % CI 1.19-2.41)-fold, respectively.In conclusion, pneumonia patients with CHF, neurological disease and age ≥ 65 years could benefit from intensified care due to increased risk of in-hospital death.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 09/2013; 125(19-20). DOI:10.1007/s00508-013-0419-y · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe two linked cases of botulinum toxin intoxication to provide the clinician with a better idea about how botulism cases may present since early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in botulism. Botulinum toxin is the strongest neurotoxin known. Methods: We review the available literature, the compiled clinical data, and observations. Results: After a slow onset of clinical signs a married couple living in Vienna presented with dysphagia, difficulties in accommodation, inability to sweat, urinary and stool retention, dizziness, and nausea. They suffered intoxication with botulinum toxin type B. Botulism is a rarely occurring disease in Austria. In the last 21 years there were only twelve reported cases. Conclusion: Both patients went to a general practitioner as well as several specialists before they were sent to and correctly diagnosed at our outpatient department. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis we think it is crucial to advert to the complex symptoms a nonsevere intoxication with botulinum toxin can produce, especially since intoxications have become rare occurrences in the industrialized societies due to the high quality of industrial food production.
    06/2012; 2012:438989. DOI:10.1155/2012/438989
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    ABSTRACT: During the influenza pandemic of 2009/10, the whole-virion, Vero-cell-derived, inactivated, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine Celvapan® (Baxter) was used in Austria. Celvapan® is adjuvant-free and was the only such vaccine at that time in Europe. The objective of this observational, non-interventional, prospective single-center study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of two intramuscular doses of this novel vaccine in HIV-positive individuals. A standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay was used for evaluation of the seroconversion rate and seroprotection against the pandemic H1N1 strain. In addition, H1N1-specific IgG antibodies were measured using a recently developed ELISA and compared with the HAI results. Tolerability of vaccination was evaluated up to one month after the second dose. A total of 79 HIV-infected adults with an indication for H1N1 vaccination were evaluated. At baseline, 55 of the 79 participants had an HAI titer ≥1:40 and two patients showed a positive IgG ELISA. The seroconversion rate was 31% after the first vaccination, increasing to 41% after the second; the corresponding seroprotection rates were 92% and 83% respectively. ELISA IgG levels were positive in 25% after the first vaccination and in 37% after the second. Among the participants with baseline HAI titers <1:40, 63% seroconverted. Young age was clearly associated with lower HAI titers at baseline and with higher seroconversion rates, whereas none of the seven patients >60 years of age had a baseline HAI titer <1:40 or seroconverted after vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. The non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine was well tolerated and induced a measurable immune response in a sample of HIV-infected individuals.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36773. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036773 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood and dialysate concentrations of fosfomycin were determined after intravenous and intraperitoneal application of 4 mg/liter in patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis. Maximum serum concentrations after intravenous (287.75 ± 86.34 mg/liter) and intraperitoneal (205.78 ± 66.78 mg/liter) administration were comparable. Ratios of intraperitoneal to systemic exposure were 1.12 (intraperitoneal administration) and 0.22 (intravenous administration), indicating good systemic exposure after intraperitoneal application but limited penetration of fosfomycin into the peritoneal fluid after the intravenous dose.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2012; 56(7):3992-5. DOI:10.1128/AAC.00126-12 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • J M Wenisch · D Schmid · G Tucek · H-W Kuo · F Allerberger · V Michl · P Tesik · H Laferl · C Wenisch
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    ABSTRACT: Although an increase in burden of disease has frequently been reported for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), specific data on the effect of CDI on a patient's risk of death or overall hospital mortality are scarce. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to analyse the effect of CDI on the risk of pre-discharge all-cause death in all inpatients with CDI compared to all inpatients without CDI during 2009 in a single hospital. Clostridium difficile infection was defined as by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Data were collected from the medical charts of CDI patients and from the hospital discharge data of non-CDI and CDI patients. The effect measures of CDI used to compute the risk of pre-discharge all-cause death were risk ratio, attributable risk, mortality fraction (%) and population attributable risk percentage. Co-morbidity was categorized using the Charlson co-morbidity score in which a value of ≤2 was defined as low co-morbidity and that of >2 as moderate/severe co-morbidity. A stratified analysis and a Poisson regression model were applied to adjust for the effects of the risk factors sex, age and severity of co-morbidity. A total of 185 hospitalized patients with CDI were compared to 38,644 other hospitalized patients without CDI admitted between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. The mean age of the CDI and non-CDI patients was 74.3 (range 72.3-76.4) and 51.9 (range 51.6-52.1) years, respectively. Of the 185 CDI, 136 (73.5 %) and 49 (26.5 %) were categorized with low and high co-morbidity, respectively, versus 32,107 (83.4 %) and 6,352 (16.5 %), respectively, in non-CDI patients. Overall, 24 of the 185 CDI patients (13 %) versus 1,021 of the 38,459 non-CDI patients (2.7 %) died during their hospital stay, resulting in a relative risk of pre-discharge death of 4.89 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.35-7.13] for CDI patients, a CDI attributable risk of death of 10.3 per 100 patients and a CDI attributable fraction of 79.5 % (95 % CI 70.1-86 %). After adjustment for age, sex and co-morbidity the relative risk of pre-discharge death was 2.74 (95 % CI 1.82-4.10; p < 0.0001) for patients with CDI, and the proportion of hospital deaths due to CDI was 1.72 (95 % CI 1.22-2.05). The results of this study lead to the conclusion that hospitalized patients with CDI are-independent of age, sex and co-morbidity severity-2.74-fold more likely to die during their hospital stay than all other hospitalized patients. The eradication of CDI in the hospital could have prevented 1.72 % of in-hospital deaths in our study population during the 1 year of the study.
    Infection 04/2012; 40(5):479-84. DOI:10.1007/s15010-012-0258-1 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a hospital-based, prospective cohort study, the effects of the three standard treatment regimens for mild Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), oral (p.o.) metronidazole at 500 mg three times/day, intravenous (i.v.) metronidazole at 500 mg three times/day, and oral (p.o.) vancomycin at 250 mg four times/day, were compared with respect to the risk of occurrence of complications, sequelae, and all-cause death within 30 days after the date of starting treatment. Differences in the incidence of these outcomes were tested by χ² or Fisher's exact tests. A Poisson regression model was performed to control for possible confounding effects of sex, age, and severity of comorbidity categorized according to the Charlson comorbidity index. The highest mortality was observed in the metronidazole i.v. group, with a mortality rate 38.1% (16/42) compared to mortality rates of 7.4% (9/121) in the metronidazole p.o. group and 9.5% (4/42) in the vancomycin p.o. group (P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible effects of sex, age (> 65 years), and severity of comorbidity, the relative risk of a 30-day fatal outcome for patients receiving metronidazole i.v. was 4.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.92 to 10; P < 0.0001) compared to patients treated with metronidazole p.o. and 4.0 (95% CI = 1.31 to 5.0; P < 0.015) compared to patients treated with vancomycin p.o. There were no significant differences in the risk of complications between the three treatment groups. This study generates the hypothesis that treatment with i.v. metronidazole is inferior to the oral alternatives metronidazole and vancomycin.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 56(4):1974-8. DOI:10.1128/AAC.05647-11 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • J M Wenisch · D Schmid · H-W Kuo · E Simons · F Allerberger · V Michl · P Tesik · G Tucek · C Wenisch
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors of severity (need for surgical intervention, intensive care or fatal outcome) were analysed in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a 777-bed community hospital. In a prospective analytical cross-sectional study, age (≥ 65 years), sex, CDI characteristics, underlying diseases, severity of comorbidity and PCR ribotypes were tested for associations with severe CDI. In total, 133 cases of hospital-acquired CDI (mean age 74.4 years) were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 5.7/10,000 hospital-days. A recurrent episode of diarrhoea occurred in 25 cases (18.8%) and complications including toxic megacolon, dehydration and septicaemia in 69 cases (51.9%). Four cases (3.0%) required ICU admission, one case (0.8%) surgical intervention and 22 cases (16.5%) died within the 30-day follow-up period. Variables identified to be independently associated with severe CDI were severe diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-11.11, p=0.02), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.08-8.40, p=0.04), chronic renal disease (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.07-7.81, p=0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.57-11.76, p=0.004). The case fatality of 16.5% underlines the importance of increased efforts in CDI prevention, in particular for patients with underlying diseases.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2011; 31(8):1923-30. DOI:10.1007/s10096-011-1522-5 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Daptomycin is bactericidal against Gram-positive bacteria, with peak-dependent effect but trough-dependent toxicity. This study was performed to develop dosing recommendations in continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Nine critically ill patients in intensive care units of the Medical University Hospital of Vienna, requiring CVVHDF due to acute renal failure and antimicrobial treatment, were included. Blood and effluent samples were collected over 72 h to determine daptomycin concentrations by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were based on 10 sampling timepoints during the first 24 h, and peak and trough samples thereafter. An open two-compartment model was fitted to each subject's plasma concentration-time data. Simulations of serum concentration-time profiles after different doses and intervals were performed using ADAPT 5. Peak plasma concentrations with 6 mg/kg daptomycin were 62.2 ± 16.2, 66.1 ± 17.3 and 78.5 ± 22.1 mg/L on days 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The total clearance was 6.1 ± 4.9 mL/min, and the elimination half-life was 17.8 ± 9.7 h. Daptomycin was filtrated and could therefore be measured in the effluent. Protein binding was lower than that seen in healthy volunteers. The unbound fraction was 16 ± 4.5%. All subjects maintained trough serum concentrations above 4 mg/L, at which relevant pathogens are considered daptomycin-susceptible. Accumulation resulted when daptomycin was given every 24 h. Simulation of 8 mg/kg daptomycin given every 48 h resulted in adequate levels without accumulation. We recommend 8 mg/kg daptomycin every 48 h in patients on CVVHDF and therapeutic drug monitoring, if possible.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2011; 67(4):977-83. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkr551 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the 2009/10 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1), the American Society of Transplantation and other health organizations recommended that immunocompromised patients should be vaccinated as the key preventive measure. Since there are no data available for the immunogenicity of the unadjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine in immunocompromised patients - as opposed to the adjuvanted preparation - the objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of an adjuvant-free H1N1 vaccine in recipients of solid organ transplants. Patients were recruited at the Vienna General Hospital, Austria. The vaccination schedule consisted of 2 doses of a whole-virion, vero cell derived, inactivated, non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) vaccine given with an interval of 3 weeks. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on blood samples obtained prior to the first and after each vaccination was used for serologic analysis. The primary immunologic endpoint was the seroconversion rate, defined as the proportion of subjects with an individual 4-fold increase in HI titer of at least 1:40. In addition, virus-specific IgG antibodies to the pandemic H1N1 strain were measured using a commercially available ELISA. Twenty-five organ transplant patients (16 males, 9 females) aged 25-79 years were vaccinated and provided blood samples for serologic analysis. The time elapsed since transplantation was 10 months to 25 years (mean: 9 years; 95% CI 6-13 years). The vaccine was well tolerated and no local adverse events were noticed. After two vaccinations 37% of the patients demonstrated seroconversion in the HI assay as defined above and 70% had virus-specific IgG antibodies. Among the HI vaccine responders were 6 of 14 heart transplant recipients and 1 of 4 liver transplant recipients. The number and type of immunosuppressive agents did not significantly differ in their effect on the immune response. Our results show that the novel vero cell derived and adjuvant-free pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) influenza vaccine induced limited but measurable immune responses in adult recipients of solid organ transplants.
    Vaccine 07/2011; 29(40):6888-93. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.050 · 3.49 Impact Factor