Anthony Antonellis

Concordia University–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

Are you Anthony Antonellis?

Claim your profile

Publications (32)216.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in the SH3 domain and tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (SH3TC2) gene cause autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT4C). The SH3TC2 protein has been implicated in promyelination signaling through axonal neuregulin-1 and the ERBB2 Schwann cell receptor. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the SH3TC2 gene. We performed computational and functional analyses that revealed two cis-acting regulatory elements at SH3TC2-one at the promoter and one ∼150 kilobases downstream of the transcription start site. Both elements direct reporter gene expression in Schwann cells and are responsive to the transcription factor SOX10, which is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination. The downstream enhancer harbors a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that causes a ∼80% reduction in enhancer activity. The SNP resides directly within a predicted binding site for the transcription factor CREB, and we demonstrate that this regulatory element binds to CREB and is activated by CREB expression. Finally, forskolin induces Sh3tc2 expression in rat primary Schwann cells, indicating that SH3TC2 is a CREB target gene. These findings prompted us to determine if SNP genotypes at SH3TC2 are associated with differential phenotypes in the most common demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, CMT1A. Interestingly, this revealed several associations between SNP alleles and disease severity. In summary, our data indicate that SH3TC2 is regulated by the transcription factors CREB and SOX10, define a regulatory SNP at this disease-associated locus, and reveal SH3TC2 as a candidate modifier locus of CMT disease phenotypes.
    Human Molecular Genetics 05/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease is a genetically heterogeneous condition with >50 genes now being identified. Thanks to new technological developments, namely, exome sequencing, the ability to identify additional rare genes in CMT has been drastically improved. Here we present data suggesting that MARS is a very rare novel cause of late-onset CMT2. This is supported by strong functional and evolutionary evidence, yet the absence of additional unrelated cases warrant future studies to substantiate this conclusion.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Rachel C Wallen, Anthony Antonellis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed, essential enzymes responsible for the first step of protein translation-attaching amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Interestingly, ARS gene mutations have been implicated in tissue-specific human diseases, including inherited peripheral neuropathies. To date, five loci encoding an ARS have been implicated in peripheral neuropathy, and alleles at each locus show loss-of-function characteristics. The majority of the phenotypes are autosomal dominant, and each of the implicated enzymes acts as an oligomer, indicating that a dominant-negative effect should be considered. On the basis of current data, impaired tRNA charging is likely to be a central component of ARS-related neuropathy. Future efforts should focus on testing this notion and developing strategies for restoring ARS function in the peripheral nerve.
    Current opinion in genetics & development 03/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a group of peripheral neuropathies affecting both motor and sensory nerves. CMTX3 is an X-linked CMT locus, which maps to chromosome Xq26.3-q27.3. Initially, CMTX3 was mapped to a 31.2-Mb region in 2 American families. We have reexamined 1 of the original families (US-PED2) by next generation sequencing. METHODS: Three members of the family underwent exome sequencing. Candidate variants were validated by PCR and Sanger sequencing analysis. CONCLUSION: No pathogenic coding variants localizing to the CMTX3 region were identified. However, exome sequencing identified a known BSCL2 mutation (N88S). This study demonstrates the power of exome sequencing as a tool to identify gene mutations for a small family in the absence of statistically significant linkage data. Muscle Nerve, 2013.
    Muscle & Nerve 11/2012; · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Mutations in four genes encoding an ARS have been implicated in inherited peripheral neuropathy with an axonal pathology, suggesting that all ARS genes are relevant candidates for disease in patients with related phenotypes. Here, we present results from a mutation screen of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene in a large cohort of patients with peripheral neuropathy. These efforts revealed a rare missense variant (c.410G>A/p.Arg137Gln) that resides at a highly conserved amino acid, represents a loss-of-function allele when evaluated in yeast complementation assays, and is toxic to neurons when expressed in a worm model. In addition to the patient with peripheral neuropathy, p.Arg137Gln HARS was detected in three individuals by genome-wide exome sequencing. These findings suggest that HARS is the fifth ARS locus associated with axonal peripheral neuropathy. Implications for identifying ARS alleles in human populations and assessing them for a role in neurodegenerative phenotypes are discussed.
    Human Mutation 08/2012; · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Martin--Probst syndrome (MPS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterised by deafness, cognitive impairment, short stature and distinct craniofacial dysmorphisms, among other features. The authors sought to identify the causative mutation for MPS. Massively parallel sequencing in two affected, related male subjects with MPS identified a RAB40AL (also called RLGP) missense mutation (chrX:102,079,078-102,079,079AC→GA p.D59G; hg18). RAB40AL encodes a small Ras-like GTPase protein with one suppressor of cytokine signalling box. The p.D59G variant is located in a highly conserved region of the GTPase domain between β-2 and β-3 strands. Using RT-PCR, the authors show that RAB40AL is expressed in human fetal and adult brain and kidney, and adult lung, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. RAB40AL appears to be a primate innovation, with no orthologues found in mouse, Xenopus or zebrafish. Western analysis and fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged RAB40AL constructs from transiently transfected COS7 cells show that the D59G missense change renders RAB40AL unstable and disrupts its cytoplasmic localisation. This is the first study to show that mutation of RAB40AL is associated with a human disorder. Identification of RAB40AL as the gene mutated in MPS allows for further investigations into the molecular mechanism(s) of RAB40AL and its roles in diverse processes such as cognition, hearing and skeletal development.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2012; 49(5):332-40. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor SOX10 has essential roles in neural crest-derived cell populations, including myelinating Schwann cells-specialized glial cells responsible for ensheathing axons in the peripheral nervous system. Importantly, SOX10 directly regulates the expression of genes essential for proper myelin function. To date, only a handful of SOX10 target loci have been characterized in Schwann cells. Addressing this lack of knowledge will provide a better understanding of Schwann cell biology and candidate loci for relevant diseases such as demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. We have identified a highly-conserved SOX10 binding site within an alternative promoter at the SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1 (Sh3kbp1) locus. The genomic segment identified at Sh3kbp1 binds to SOX10 and displays strong promoter activity in Schwann cells in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of the SOX10 binding site ablates promoter activity, and ectopic expression of SOX10 in SOX10-negative cells promotes the expression of endogenous Sh3kbp1. Combined, these data reveal Sh3kbp1 as a novel target of SOX10 and raise important questions regarding the function of SH3KBP1 isoforms in Schwann cells.
    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 02/2012; 49(2):85-96. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease comprises a heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, and impaired sensation in the extremities. Four genes encoding an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) have been implicated in CMT disease. ARSs are ubiquitously expressed, essential enzymes that ligate amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Recently, a p.Arg329His variant in the alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) gene was found to segregate with dominant axonal CMT type 2N (CMT2N) in two French families; however, the functional consequence of this mutation has not been determined. To investigate the role of AARS in CMT, we performed a mutation screen of the AARS gene in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Our results showed that p.Arg329His AARS also segregated with CMT disease in a large Australian family. Aminoacylation and yeast viability assays showed that p.Arg329His AARS severely reduces enzyme activity. Genotyping analysis indicated that this mutation arose on three distinct haplotypes, and the results of bisulfite sequencing suggested that methylation-mediated deamination of a CpG dinucleotide gives rise to the recurrent p.Arg329His AARS mutation. Together, our data suggest that impaired tRNA charging plays a role in the molecular pathology of CMT2N, and that patients with CMT should be directly tested for the p.Arg329His AARS mutation.
    Human Mutation 01/2012; 33(1):244-53. · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myelin insulates axons in the peripheral nervous system to allow rapid propagation of action potentials, and proper myelination requires the precise regulation of genes encoding myelin proteins, including PMP22. The correct gene dosage of PMP22 is critical; a duplication of PMP22 is the most common cause of the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) (classified as type 1A), while a deletion of PMP22 leads to another peripheral neuropathy, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Recently, duplications upstream of PMP22, but not containing the gene itself, were reported in patients with CMT1A like symptoms, suggesting that this region contains regulators of PMP22. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of two transcription factors known to upregulate PMP22-EGR2 and SOX10-we found several enhancers in this upstream region that contain open chromatin and direct reporter gene expression in tissue culture and in vivo in zebrafish. These studies provide a novel means to identify critical regulatory elements in genes that are required for myelination, and elucidate the functional significance of non-coding genomic rearrangements.
    Human Molecular Genetics 12/2011; 21(7):1581-91. · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D) is a dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by missense mutations in the glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene (GARS). In addition to GARS, mutations in three other tRNA synthetase genes cause similar neuropathies, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address this, we generated transgenic mice that ubiquitously over-express wild-type GARS and crossed them to two dominant mouse models of CMT2D to distinguish loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms. Over-expression of wild-type GARS does not improve the neuropathy phenotype in heterozygous Gars mutant mice, as determined by histological, functional, and behavioral tests. Transgenic GARS is able to rescue a pathological point mutation as a homozygote or in complementation tests with a Gars null allele, demonstrating the functionality of the transgene and revealing a recessive loss-of-function component of the point mutation. Missense mutations as transgene-rescued homozygotes or compound heterozygotes have a more severe neuropathy than heterozygotes, indicating that increased dosage of the disease-causing alleles results in a more severe neurological phenotype, even in the presence of a wild-type transgene. We conclude that, although missense mutations of Gars may cause some loss of function, the dominant neuropathy phenotype observed in mice is caused by a dose-dependent gain of function that is not mitigated by over-expression of functional wild-type protein.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2011; 7(12):e1002399. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in glycyl-, tyrosyl-, and alanyl-tRNA synthetases (GARS, YARS and AARS respectively) cause autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and mutations in Gars cause a similar peripheral neuropathy in mice. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) charge amino acids onto their cognate tRNAs during translation; however, the pathological mechanism(s) of ARS mutations remains unclear. To address this, we tested possible mechanisms using mouse models. First, amino acid mischarging was discounted by examining the recessive "sticky" mutation in alanyl-tRNA synthetase (Aars(sti)), which causes cerebellar neurodegeneration through a failure to efficiently correct mischarging of tRNA(Ala). Aars(sti/sti) mice do not have peripheral neuropathy, and they share no phenotypic features with the Gars mutant mice. Next, we determined that the Wallerian Degeneration Slow (Wlds) mutation did not alter the Gars phenotype. Therefore, no evidence for misfolding of GARS itself or other proteins was found. Similarly, there were no indications of general insufficiencies in protein synthesis caused by Gars mutations based on yeast complementation assays. Mutant GARS localized differently than wild type GARS in transfected cells, but a similar distribution was not observed in motor neurons derived from wild type mouse ES cells, and there was no evidence for abnormal GARS distribution in mouse tissue. Both GARS and YARS proteins were present in sciatic axons and Schwann cells from Gars mutant and control mice, consistent with a direct role for tRNA synthetases in peripheral nerves. Unless defects in translation are in some way restricted to peripheral axons, as suggested by the axonal localization of GARS and YARS, we conclude that mutations in tRNA synthetases are not causing peripheral neuropathy through amino acid mischarging or through a defect in their known function in translation.
    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 02/2011; 46(2):432-43. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ERBB3 gene is essential for the proper development of the neural crest (NC) and its derivative populations such as Schwann cells. As with all cell fate decisions, transcriptional regulatory control plays a significant role in the progressive restriction and specification of NC derived lineages during development. However, little is known about the sequences mediating transcriptional regulation of ERBB3 or the factors that bind them. In this study we identified three transcriptional enhancers at the ERBB3 locus and evaluated their regulatory potential in vitro in NC-derived cell types and in vivo in transgenic zebrafish. One enhancer, termed ERBB3_MCS6, which lies within the first intron of ERBB3, directs the highest reporter expression in vitro and also demonstrates epigenetic marks consistent with enhancer activity. We identify a consensus SOX10 binding site within ERBB3_MCS6 and demonstrate, in vitro, its necessity and sufficiency for the activity of this enhancer. Additionally, we demonstrate that transcription from the endogenous Erbb3 locus is dependent on Sox10. Further we demonstrate in vitro that Sox10 physically interacts with that ERBB3_MCS6. Consistent with its in vitro activity, we also show that ERBB3_MCS6 drives reporter expression in NC cells and a subset of its derivative lineages in vivo in zebrafish in a manner consistent with erbb3b expression. We also demonstrate, using morpholino analysis, that Sox10 is necessary for ERBB3_MCS6 expression in vivo in zebrafish. Taken collectively, our data suggest that ERBB3 may be directly regulated by SOX10, and that this control may in part be facilitated by ERBB3_MCS6.
    BMC Developmental Biology 01/2011; 11:40. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited axonal neuropathies. The aim of this study was to extensively investigate the mutational spectrum of CMT2 in a cohort of patients of Han Chinese. Genomic DNA from 36 unrelated Taiwanese CMT2 patients of Han Chinese descent was screened for mutations in the coding regions of the MFN2, RAB7, TRPV4, GARS, NEFL, HSPB1, MPZ, GDAP1, HSPB8, DNM2, AARS and YARS genes. Ten disparate mutations were identified in 14 patients (38.9% of the cohort), including p.N71Y in AARS (2.8%), p.T164A in HSPB1 (2.8%), and p.[H256R]+[R282H] in GDAP1 (2.8%) in one patient each, three NEFL mutations in six patients (16.7%) and four MFN2 mutations in five patients (13.9%). The following six mutations were novel: the individual AARS, HSPB1 and GDAP1 mutations and c.475-1G>T, p.L233V and p.E744M mutations in MFN2. An in vitro splicing assay revealed that the MFN2 c.475-1G>T mutation causes a 4 amino acid deletion (p.T159_Q162del). Despite an extensive survey, the genetic causes of CMT2 remained elusive in the remaining 22 CMT2 patients (61.1%). This study illustrates the spectrum of CMT2 mutations in a Taiwanese CMT2 cohort and expands the number of CMT2-associated mutations. The relevance of the AARS and HSPB1 mutations in the pathogenesis of CMT2 is further highlighted. Moreover, the frequency of the NEFL mutations in this study cohort was unexpectedly high. Genetic testing for NEFL and MFN2 mutations should, therefore, be the first step in the molecular diagnosis of CMT2 in ethnic Chinese.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29393. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Mus spretus, the chloride channel 4 gene Clcn4-2 is X-linked and dosage compensated by X up-regulation and X inactivation, while in the closely related mouse species Mus musculus, Clcn4-2 has been translocated to chromosome 7. We sequenced Clcn4-2 in M. spretus and identified the breakpoints of the evolutionary translocation in the Mus lineage. Genetic and epigenetic differences were observed between the 5'ends of the autosomal and X-linked loci. Remarkably, Clcn4-2 introns have been truncated on chromosome 7 in M. musculus as compared with the X-linked loci from seven other eutherian mammals. Intron sequences specifically preserved in the X-linked loci were significantly enriched in AT-rich oligomers. Genome-wide analyses showed an overall enrichment in AT motifs unique to the eutherian X (except for genes that escape X inactivation), suggesting a role for these motifs in regulation of the X chromosome.
    Genome Research 01/2011; 21(3):402-9. · 14.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease comprises a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of peripheral nerve disorders characterized by impaired distal motor and sensory function. Mutations in three genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) have been implicated in CMT disease primarily associated with an axonal pathology. ARSs are ubiquitously expressed, essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with their cognate amino acids. To further explore the role of ARSs in CMT disease, we performed a large-scale mutation screen of the 37 human ARS genes in a cohort of 355 patients with a phenotype consistent with CMT. Here we describe three variants (p.Leu133His, p.Tyr173SerfsX7, and p.Ile302Met) in the lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KARS) gene in two patients from this cohort. Functional analyses revealed that two of these mutations (p.Leu133His and p.Tyr173SerfsX7) severely affect enzyme activity. Interestingly, both functional variants were found in a single patient with CMT disease and additional neurological and non-neurological sequelae. Based on these data, KARS becomes the fourth ARS gene associated with CMT disease, indicating that this family of enzymes is specifically critical for axon function.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2010; 87(4):560-6. · 11.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a critical structural component of myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The MPZ gene is regulated, in part, by the transcription factors SOX10 and EGR2. Mutations in MPZ, SOX10, and EGR2 have been implicated in demyelinating peripheral neuropathies, suggesting that components of this transcriptional network are candidates for harboring disease-causing mutations (or otherwise functional variants) that affect MPZ expression. We utilized a combination of multi-species sequence comparisons, transcription factor-binding site predictions, targeted human DNA re-sequencing, and in vitro and in vivo enhancer assays to study human non-coding MPZ variants. Our efforts revealed a variant within the first intron of MPZ that resides within a previously described SOX10 binding site is associated with decreased enhancer activity, and alters binding of nuclear proteins. Additionally, the genomic segment harboring this variant directs tissue-relevant reporter gene expression in zebrafish. This is the first reported MPZ variant within a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element. While we were unable to implicate this variant in disease onset, our data suggests that similar non-coding sequences should be screened for mutations in patients with neurological disease. Furthermore, our multi-faceted approach for examining the functional significance of non-coding variants can be readily generalized to study other loci important for myelin structure and function.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e14346. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Utilizing a recently identified Sox10 distal enhancer directing Cre expression, we report S4F:Cre, a transgenic mouse line capable of inducing recombination in oligodendroglia and all examined neural crest derived tissues. Assayed using R26R:LacZ reporter mice expression was detected in neural crest derived tissues including the forming facial skeleton, dorsal root ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, enteric nervous system, aortae, and melanoblasts, consistent with Sox10 expression. LacZ reporter expression was also detected in non-neural crest derived tissues including the oligodendrocytes and the ventral neural tube. This line provides appreciable differences in Cre expression pattern from other transgenic mouse lines that mark neural crest populations, including additional populations defined by the expression of other SoxE proteins. The S4F:Cre transgenic line will thus serve as a powerful tool for lineage tracing, gene function characterization, and genome manipulation in these populations.
    genesis 10/2009; 47(11):765-70. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expression profile analysis clusters Gpnmb with known pigment genes, Tyrp1, Dct, and Si. During development, Gpnmb is expressed in a pattern similar to Mitf, Dct and Si with expression vastly reduced in Mitf mutant animals. Unlike Dct and Si, Gpnmb remains expressed in a discrete population of caudal melanoblasts in Sox10-deficient embryos. To understand the transcriptional regulation of Gpnmb we performed a whole genome annotation of 2,460,048 consensus MITF binding sites, and cross-referenced this with evolutionarily conserved genomic sequences at the GPNMB locus. One conserved element, GPNMB-MCS3, contained two MITF consensus sites, significantly increased luciferase activity in melanocytes and was sufficient to drive expression in melanoblasts in vivo. Deletion of the 5'-most MITF consensus site dramatically reduced enhancer activity indicating a significant role for this site in Gpnmb transcriptional regulation. Future analysis of the Gpnmb locus will provide insight into the transcriptional regulation of melanocytes, and Gpnmb expression can be used as a marker for analyzing melanocyte development and disease progression.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 12/2008; 22(1):99-110. · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A major challenge lies in understanding the complexities of gene regulation. Mutation of the transcription factor SOX10 is associated with several human diseases. The disease phenotypes reflect the function of SOX10 in diverse tissues including the neural crest, central nervous system and otic vesicle. As expected, the SOX10 expression pattern is complex and highly dynamic, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms regulating its spatiotemporal pattern. SOX10 expression is highly conserved between all vertebrates characterised. We have combined in vivo testing of DNA fragments in zebrafish and computational comparative genomics to identify the first regulatory regions of the zebrafish sox10 gene. Both approaches converged on the 3' end of the conserved 1st intron as being critical for spatial patterning of sox10 in the embryo. Importantly, we have defined a minimal region crucial for this function. We show that this region contains numerous binding sites for transcription factors known to be essential in early neural crest induction, including Tcf/Lef, Sox and FoxD3. We show that the identity and relative position of these binding sites are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. A further region, partially required for oligodendrocyte expression, lies in the 5' region of the same intron and contains a putative CSL binding site, consistent with a role for Notch signalling in sox10 regulation. Furthermore, we show that beta-catenin, Notch signalling and Sox9 can induce ectopic sox10 expression in early embryos, consistent with regulatory roles predicted from our transgenic and computational results. We have thus identified two major sites of sox10 regulation in vertebrates and provided evidence supporting a role for at least three factors in driving sox10 expression in neural crest, otic epithelium and oligodendrocyte domains.
    BMC Developmental Biology 11/2008; 8:105. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sox10 is a dynamically regulated transcription factor gene that is essential for the development of neural crest-derived and oligodendroglial populations. Developmental genes often require multiple regulatory sequences that integrate discrete and overlapping functions to coordinate their expression. To identify Sox10 cis-regulatory elements, we integrated multiple model systems, including cell-based screens and transposon-mediated transgensis in zebrafish, to scrutinize mammalian conserved, noncoding genomic segments at the mouse Sox10 locus. We demonstrate that eight of 11 Sox10 genomic elements direct reporter gene expression in transgenic zebrafish similar to patterns observed in transgenic mice, despite an absence of observable sequence conservation between mice and zebrafish. Multiple segments direct expression in overlapping populations of neural crest derivatives and glial cells, ranging from pan-Sox10 and pan-neural crest regulatory control to the modulation of expression in subpopulations of Sox10-expressing cells, including developing melanocytes and Schwann cells. Several sequences demonstrate overlapping spatial control, yet direct expression in incompletely overlapping developmental intervals. We were able to partially explain neural crest expression patterns by the presence of head to head SoxE family binding sites within two of the elements. Moreover, we were able to use this transcription factor binding site signature to identify the corresponding zebrafish enhancers in the absence of overall sequence homology. We demonstrate the utility of zebrafish transgenesis as a high-fidelity surrogate in the dissection of mammalian gene regulation, especially those with dynamically controlled developmental expression.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2008; 4(9):e1000174. · 8.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

959 Citations
216.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Genome Technology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States