Anne Frankel

Florida International University, Miami, Florida, United States

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Publications (5)3.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: According to the theory of planned behavior, any given behavior is directly preceded by the intention to perform that behavior. Among adolescents, the mechanism determining intentions for having safe sex is complex and poorly understood. The current study examined attitudes about sex and condoms, parental presence and other elements of the parent-adolescent relationship, as well as neighborhood stress as predictors for safe sex intentions. Methods: The study sample included 196 adolescents ages 13-18 in south Florida. Predictors included condom attitudes, sexual attitudes, global communication, parental presence, parent-family connectedness, parent-adolescent activities, neighborhood disorder, and exposure to violence. Gender, race/ethnicity, family structure, and age were also measured. The outcome variable was a 15-item scale measuring behavioral intentions for safe sex behavior, including intentions to use condoms, to discuss previous sexual partners, and to have sex after using drugs and alcohol (α = .87). A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted in order to determine the best fit model. Results: The most parsimonious model explained 29% of the variance in behavioral intentions (R2 = .29, F(5,115) = 9.24, p
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies find that positive behavioral intentions for safe sex precede safe sex behavior. Patterns of sexual activity vary based on demographic factors including gender, age, family structure, and race/ethnicity. The current study examined the degree to which intentions for safe sex varied among demographic groups. Methods: The study sample included 196 adolescents, ages 13-18, in south Florida. Intentions for safe sex behavior was a composite score comprised of 15 questions about condom use, sexual communication, and sex after using alcohol and drugs (α = .87). T-tests and ANOVAs were conducted to compare groups, including: male to female adolescents; ages 13-16 to ages 17-18; African-American participants to non-African American participants; and participants living with both natural parents, mother only, and other living situations. Results: Male adolescents (M = 73.32, SD = 12.06) reported less favorable intentions for having safe sex than females (M = 79.93, SD = 13.24, t(186) = -3.56, p
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 5.2–22.9% in the severely mentally ill (SMI) depending on population factors including gender, substance abuse, and region of residence, namely metropolitan or non-metropolitan (1). Regardless of the actual HIV rate among SMI, researchers agree that rates are higher than in the general population (2). Further, HIV prevention researchers routinely report high rates of risky sexual behavior such as multiple sexual partners, trading sex for drugs, and unprotected sex (2–4), not to mention high rates of injection drug use in SMI populations (5). SMI studies have most frequently used small group interventions with some meaningful short term results (4, 6). Thus far, it has been found that reductions in risk behavior tend to fade with time and are less than impressive in those with more severe psychiatric impairment. Successful interventions are most often defined as those that not only increase HIV/AIDS knowledge and produce more positive attitudes towards safe sex, but ultimately result in less sexual risk behavior. An early review determined that the most efficacious interventions had many sessions, which can be a challenge for a transitive SMI population (7). The same review found that successful interventions integrated techniques to mediate multiple risk determinants, often by utilizing role play, modeling, and identification of personal risk triggers. In their 2008 review, Senn and Carey found that interventions which included motivational or attitudinal components, as well as skills components, saw the most
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    ABSTRACT: Among severely mentally ill (SMI) substance abusers, HIV rates are elevated and HIV risk reduction interventions have been shown to be less effective. An enhanced cognitive behavioral HIV risk reduction intervention (E-CB) for SMI was compared to a health promotion condition (HPC) in 222 psychiatric outpatients at 6 months postintervention. Compared to females, males in the E-CB improved on intention to practice safer sex and in condom use skills and in unprotected vaginal sex, but did not differ in HIV knowledge, perceived susceptibility, anxiety, condom attitudes, safer sex self-efficacy, unprotected vaginal sex acts, or sex partners. Across intervention groups, there were improvements in all areas except self-efficacy and number of partners. Risk reduction among SMI may be facilitated by increasing awareness of health related behaviors and HIV-targeted content. However, meaningful changes in critical risk reduction skills and intentions may require a more focused intervention and may vary by gender.
    AIDS and Behavior 01/2012; 16(5):1192-202. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exposure to violence (EV) at a young age is associated with sexual risk, drug use, and fewer educational opportunities. Few studies have examined how parent-adolescent relationship factors and awareness of neighborhood violence is related to adolescent risk behavior. Methods: The study sample was 99 male and female adolescents ages 14-17 and their parents/guardians in S. Florida. EV is a composite score derived from the City Stress Inventory which measures how often a family member or friend has been the victim of a violent attack. Parent factors (caring and closeness), and outcome measures (current sexual activity) came from an adapted AddHealth questionnaire. The other outcome measure, school expulsion, came from the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis. Results: Parents reported significantly lower levels of EV (n=97, M=7.89) than adolescents (n=90, M=10.53) [t(182)=6.293, p<.0001]. A larger mean difference between parent and adolescent reports of violence was associated with higher levels of sexual activity (r=.407, p=.007) and school expulsions (r=.399, p=.003) among male adolescents. For both female and male adolescents, a smaller mean difference in parent and adolescent reports of violence was associated with higher levels of paternal caring (r=-.313, p=.014) and maternal closeness (r=-.313, p=.005). Conclusion: When parents were less aware of their child's exposure to violence, male adolescents were more likely to be sexually active and have serious troubles in school. Developing interventions that focus on building a close, caring relationship between parent and child could ameliorate the effects of exposure to violence.
    139st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2011; 10/2011