[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Helicobacter pylori is the first bacterium formally recognized as a carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world’s population is colonized by the bacterium. H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal disease depends on the inflammatory response of the host and on the production of specific bacterial virulence factors. The study of Helicobacter pylori pathogenic action would greatly benefit by easy-to-use models of infection.
In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as a new model for H. pylori infection. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with bacterial suspensions or broth culture filtrates from either different wild-type H. pylori strains or their mutants defective in specific virulence determinants, such as VacA, CagA, CagE, the whole pathogenicity island (PAI) cag, urease, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). We also tested purified VacA cytotoxin. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method and LD50 lethal doses were calculated. Viable bacteria in the hemocoel were counted at different time points post-infection, while apoptosis in larval hemocytes was evaluated by annexin V staining. We found that wild-type and mutant H. pylori strains were able to survive and replicate in G. mellonella larvae which underwent death rapidly after infection. H. pylori mutant strains defective in either VacA, or CagA, or CagE, or cag PAI, or urease, but not GGT-defective mutants, were less virulent than the respective parental strain. Broth culture filtrates from wild-type strains G27 and 60190 and their mutants replicated the effects observed using their respective bacterial suspension. Also, purified VacA cytotoxin was able to kill the larvae. The killing of larvae always correlated with the induction of apoptosis in hemocytes.
G. mellonella larvae are susceptible to H. pylori infection and may represent an easy to use in vivo model to identify virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori. The experimental model described can be useful to screen a large number of clinical H. pylori strain and to correlate virulence of H. pylori strains with patients’ disease status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and possible evolution to acute leukemia. Occurrence of stem cell defects and of immune-mediated mechanisms was evidenced as relevant for pathophysiology of MDS. Here, we described one case of MDS patient carrying CD14+CD56+ monocytes in bone marrow (BM), in the presence of a defective human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E expression on peripheral blood (PB) cells and of natural killer (NK) cell expansion in PB and BM. The defective HLA-E expression and the NK expansion are proposed to be relevant for the pathogenesis of myelodysplasia in those patients showing CD14+CD56+ monocytes in BM.
European Journal Of Haematology 09/2013; 91(3). DOI:10.1111/ejh.12152 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a chronic systemic disease endemic in Mediterranean basin. The aim of the study is to investigate the immune profile of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum. In order to address such issue, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte T cell subsets, peripheral CD4(+)CD3(+)Foxp3(+) (Treg) levels and the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells have been assessed, in 45 infected dogs and in 30 healthy animals, by using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry detection. Animals were categorised according to their clinical-pathological status and their antibody titer at diagnosis. Results showing a significant increase of CD8(+)CD3(+) T lymphocytes, a reduced percentage of the T regulatory CD4(+)CD3(+)Foxp3(+) subset and a significant increase of TH1 cells, characterise the infected dogs, regardless of their antibody titer or the occurrence of clinical symptomatic disease. These data may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of immune-mediated alterations associated with canine leishmaniasis.
Research in Veterinary Science 08/2013; 95(3). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.08.005 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relevance of immune-dysregulation for emergence, dominance and progression of dysplastic clones in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was suggested, but valuable or predictive criteria on this involvement are lacking. We previously reported that reduced T-regulatory cells (Treg) and high CD54 expression on T cell identify a sub-group of patients in whom an immune-pathogenesis might be inferred. Here, we suggest the occurrence of immune-selection of dysplastic clones in a subgroup of MDS patients, with reduced HLA-I and HLA-E on PMN, and propose that an altered immune profile might represent a valuable criterion to classify Low/Int-1 patients on the basis of immune-pathogenesis of MDS.
Leukemia research 10/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2012.09.015 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is due to pathological expansion of a stem progenitor bearing a somatic mutation of PIG-A gene involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Numerous data suggest a role for immune-mediated mechanisms in the selection/expansion of GPI-defective clone. Haemolytic anaemia in PNH is dependent on the effect of complement against GPI-defective red cells. Eculizumab, an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, is dramatically effective in controlling haemolysis and thrombosis, in reducing fatigue and in improving quality of life of patients. However, this therapy presents new challenges that need to be properly faced. Here, we report the decrease in B, Natural Killer (NK) and regulatory T cells (Treg), an altered cytokine profile of invariant-NKT cells (NKTi) and the increasing of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) receptor in PNH patients before the Eculizumab therapy. Treatment significantly affects some of these alterations: after Eculizumab, the number of B lymphocytes, the cytokine secretion of NKTi and CXCR4 expression on CD8 T cells became similar to healthy donors. No effects were observed on NK and Treg. The amplitude of the GPI-defective compartment remained unchanged.