[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RT-PCR and DNA microarrays were used to probe for Zn(II)-responsive genes in E. coli cells that were made Zn(II) deficient. Microarray data revealed 114 genes were significantly up-regulated and 146 genes were significantly down-regulated in Zn(II) deficient conditions. The three most up-regulated genes were (1) znuA, which encodes for a periplasmic protein known to be involved with Zn(II) import, (2) yodA, which encodes for a periplasmic protein with unknown function, and (3) ykgM, which encodes for a ribosomal protein that is thought to be a paralog of ribosomal protein L31. YodA was over-expressed and purified as a maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein and shown to tightly bind 4 equivalents of Zn(II). Metal analyses showed that MBP-YkgM does not bind Zn(II). On the other hand, MBP-L31 tightly binds 1 equivalent of Zn(II). EXAFS studies on MBP-L31 suggest a ligand field of 1 histidine, 1 cysteine, and 2 additional N/O scatterers. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Cys16 coordinates Zn(II) in MBP-L31 and that the other three cysteines do not bind metal. These results are discussed in light of Zn(II) starvation model that has been postulated for B. subtilis.
Journal of inorganic biochemistry 12/2011; 111:164-72. · 3.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes tightly bind 8 equiv of Zn(II), and EXAFS spectra indicate that Zn(II) may be protein-bound. Ribosomes were incubated with EDTA and Zn(II), and after dialysis, the resulting ribosomes bound 5 and 11 equiv of Zn(II), respectively. EXAFS studies show that the additional Zn(II) in the zinc-supplemented ribosomes binds in part to the phosphate backbone of the ribosome. Lastly, in vitro translation studies demonstrate that EDTA-treated ribosomes do not synthesize an active Zn(II)-bound metalloenzyme, while the as-isolated ribosomes do. These studies demonstrate that the majority of intracellular Zn(II) resides in the ribosome.