J. Colin Hill

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (16)76.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization fields obtained by cross-correlating the reconstructed convergence signal from the first season of ACTPol data at 146 GHz with Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) fluctuations measured using the Planck satellite. Using an overlap area of 206 square degrees, we detect gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization by large-scale structure at a statistical significance of 4.5 sigma. Combining both CMB temperature and polarization data gives a lensing detection at 9.1 sigma significance. A B-mode polarization lensing signal is present with a significance of 3.2 sigma. We also present the first measurement of CMB lensing--CIB correlation at small scales corresponding to l > 2000. Null tests and systematic checks show that our results are not significantly biased by astrophysical or instrumental systematic effects, including Galactic dust. Fitting our measurements to the best-fit lensing-CIB cross power spectrum measured in Planck data, scaled by an amplitude A, gives A=1.02 +0.12/-0.18 (stat.) +/-0.06(syst.), consistent with the Planck results.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/808/1/7 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) energy spectrum is a near-perfect blackbody. The standard model of cosmology predicts small spectral distortions to this form, but no such distortion of the sky-averaged CMB spectrum has yet been measured. We calculate the largest expected distortion, which arises from the inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons off hot, ionized electrons in the universe, known as the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. We show that the predicted signal is roughly one order of magnitude below the current bound from the COBE-FIRAS experiment, but will be detected at enormous significance ($\gtrsim 1000\sigma$) by the proposed Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE). Although cosmic variance reduces the effective signal-to-noise to $230\sigma$, PIXIE will still yield a sub-percent constraint on the total thermal energy in electrons in the observable universe. Furthermore, we show that PIXIE will detect subtle relativistic effects in the sky-averaged tSZ signal at $30\sigma$, which directly probe moments of the optical depth-weighted intracluster medium electron temperature distribution. PIXIE will thus determine the global thermodynamic properties of ionized gas in the universe with unprecedented precision. These measurements will impose a fundamental "integral constraint" on models of galaxy formation and the injection of feedback energy over cosmic time.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper was published online on 13 April 2015 with an error in an author’s name. The seventh author’s name should read as “Jerod Caligiuri.” The author’s name has been corrected as of 17 April 2015. The author’s name is correct in the printed version of the journal.
    Physical Review Letters 05/2015; 114(18). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.189901 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a statistical detection of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by $10^{13}$ solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12,000 optically-selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles, and is favored over a null signal at 3.2 sigma significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2015; 114(15):151302. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.151302 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the one-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) decrement in the pixel temperature histogram of filtered 148 GHz sky maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The PDF includes the signal from all galaxy clusters in the map, including objects below the signal-to-noise threshold for individual detection, making it a particularly sensitive probe of the amplitude of matter density perturbations, $\sigma_8$. We use a combination of analytic halo model calculations and numerical simulations to compute the theoretical tSZ PDF and its covariance matrix, accounting for all noise sources and including relativistic corrections. From the measured ACT 148 GHz PDF alone, we find $\sigma_8 = 0.793 \pm 0.018$, with additional systematic errors of $\pm 0.017$ due to uncertainty in intracluster medium gas physics and $\pm 0.006$ due to uncertainty in infrared point source contamination. Using effectively the same data set, the statistical error here is a factor of two lower than that found in ACT's previous $\sigma_8$ determination based solely on the skewness of the tSZ signal. In future temperature maps with higher sensitivity, the tSZ PDF will break the degeneracy between intracluster medium gas physics and cosmological parameters.
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Planck nominal mission temperature maps to examine the stacked thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal of 188042 "locally brightest galaxies" (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Our LBG sample closely matches that of Planck Collaboration XI (2013, PCXI), but our analysis differs in several ways. We work directly in terms of physically observable quantities, requiring minimal assumptions about the gas pressure profile. We explicitly model the dust emission from each LBG and simultaneously measure both the stacked tSZ and dust signals as a function of stellar mass $M_*$. There is a small residual bias in stacked tSZ measurements; we measure this bias and subtract it from our results, finding that the effects are non-negligible at the lowest masses in the LBG sample. Finally, we compare our measurements with two pressure profile models, finding that the profile from Battaglia et al. (2012b) provides a better fit to the results than the Arnaud et al. (2010) "universal pressure profile". However, within the uncertainties, we find that the data are consistent with a self-similar scaling with mass -- more precise measurements are needed to detect the relatively small deviations from self-similarity predicted by these models. Our results are consistent with PCXI for LBGs with $\log(M_*/M_\odot) > 11.3$; below this mass, however, we do not see evidence for a stacked tSZ signal, in contrast to PCXI. The difference likely arises from our consideration of dust and stacking bias effects. In particular, we note that the stacked dust emission is comparable to or larger than the stacked tSZ signal for $\log(M_*/M_\odot) \lesssim 11.3$. Future tSZ analyses with larger samples and lower noise levels should be able to probe deviations from self-similarity and thus provide constraints on models of feedback and the evolution of hot halo gas over cosmic time.
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    ABSTRACT: Future arcminute resolution polarization data from ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations can be used to estimate the contribution to the temperature power spectrum from the primary anisotropies and to uncover the signature of reionization near $\ell=1500$ in the small angular-scale temperature measurements. Our projections are based on combining expected small-scale E-mode polarization measurements from Advanced ACTPol in the range $300<\ell<3000$ with simulated temperature data from the full Planck mission in the low and intermediate $\ell$ region, $2<\ell<2000$. We show that the six basic cosmological parameters determined from this combination of data will predict the underlying primordial temperature spectrum at high multipoles to better than $1\%$ accuracy. Assuming an efficient cleaning from multi-frequency channels of most foregrounds in the temperature data, we investigate the sensitivity to the only residual secondary component, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) term. The CMB polarization is used to break degeneracies between primordial and secondary terms present in temperature and, in effect, to remove from the temperature data all but the residual kSZ term. We estimate a $15 \sigma$ detection of the diffuse homogeneous kSZ signal from expected AdvACT temperature data at $\ell>1500$, leading to a measurement of the amplitude of matter density fluctuations, $\sigma_8$, at $1\%$ precision. Alternatively, by exploring the reionization signal encoded in the patchy kSZ measurements, we bound the time and duration of the reionization with $\sigma(z_{\rm re})=1.1$ and $\sigma(\Delta z_{\rm re})=0.2$. We find that these constraints degrade rapidly with large beam sizes, which highlights the importance of arcminute-scale resolution for future CMB surveys.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 06/2014; JCAP08(2014)010. DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/08/010 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BICEP2 has reported the detection of a degree-scale B-mode polarization pattern in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and has interpreted the measurement as evidence for primordial gravitational waves. Motivated by the profound importance of the discovery of gravitational waves from the early Universe, we examine to what extent a combination of Galactic foregrounds and lensed E-modes could be responsible for the signal. We reanalyze the BICEP2 results and show that the 100x150 GHz and 150x150 GHz data are consistent with a cosmology with r=0.2 and negligible foregrounds, but also with a cosmology with r=0 and a significant dust polarization signal. We give independent estimates of the dust polarization signal in the BICEP2 region using four different approaches. While these approaches are consistent with each other, the expected amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum remains uncertain by about a factor of three. The lower end of the prediction leaves room for a primordial contribution, but at the higher end the dust in combination with the standard CMB lensing signal could account for the BICEP2 observations, without requiring the existence of primordial gravitational waves. By measuring the cross-correlations between the pre-Planck templates used in the BICEP2 analysis and between different versions of a data-based template, we emphasize that cross-correlations between models are very sensitive to noise in the polarization angles and that measured cross-correlations are likely underestimates of the contribution of foregrounds to the map. These results suggest that BICEP1 and BICEP2 data alone cannot distinguish between foregrounds and a primordial gravitational wave signal, and that future Keck Array observations at 100 GHz and Planck observations at higher frequencies will be crucial to determine whether the signal is of primordial origin. (abridged)
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 05/2014; 2014(08). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/08/039 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and celestial polarization at 146 GHz made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) in its first three months of observing. Four regions of sky covering a total of 270 square degrees were mapped with an angular resolution of $1.3'$. The map noise levels in the four regions are between 11 and 17 $\mu$K-arcmin. We present TT, TE, EE, TB, EB, and BB power spectra from three of these regions. The observed E-mode polarization power spectrum, displaying six acoustic peaks in the range $200<\ell<3000$, is an excellent fit to the prediction of the best-fit cosmological models from WMAP9+ACT and Planck data. The polarization power spectrum, which mainly reflects primordial plasma velocity perturbations, provides an independent determination of cosmological parameters consistent with those based on the temperature power spectrum, which results mostly from primordial density perturbations. We find that without masking any point sources in the EE data at $\ell<9000$, the Poisson tail of the EE power spectrum due to polarized point sources has an amplitude less than $2.4$ $\mu$K$^2$ at $\ell = 3000$ at 95\% confidence. Finally, we report that the Crab Nebula, an important polarization calibration source at microwave frequencies, has 8.7\% polarization with an angle of $150.9^\circ \pm 0.5^\circ$ when smoothed with a $5'$ Gaussian beam.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 05/2014; JCAP10(2014)007. DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/007 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    J. Colin Hill, David N. Spergel
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    ABSTRACT: The nominal mission maps from the Planck satellite contain a wealth of information about secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), including those induced by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing. As both the tSZ and CMB lensing signals trace the large-scale matter density field, the anisotropies sourced by these processes are expected to be correlated. We report the first detection of this cross-correlation signal, which we measure at 6.2 sigma significance using the Planck data. We take advantage of Planck's multifrequency coverage to construct a tSZ map using internal linear combination techniques, which we subsequently cross-correlate with the publicly-released Planck CMB lensing potential map. [Abridged] We interpret the signal using halo model calculations, which indicate that the tSZ -- CMB lensing cross-correlation is a unique probe of the physics of intracluster gas in high-redshift, low-mass groups and clusters. Our results are consistent with extrapolations of existing gas physics models to this previously unexplored regime and show clear evidence for contributions from both the one- and two-halo terms, but no statistically significant evidence for contributions from diffuse, unbound gas outside of collapsed halos. We also show that the amplitude of the signal depends rather sensitively on the amplitude of fluctuations ($\sigma_8$) and the matter density ($\Omega_m$). We constrain the degenerate combination $\sigma_8 (\Omega_m/0.282)^{0.26} = 0.831^{+0.026}_{-0.030}$, a result that is in less tension with primordial CMB constraints than some recent tSZ analyses. Our detection is a direct confirmation that hot, ionized gas traces the dark matter distribution over a wide range of scales in the universe ($\sim 0.1$--$50 \, {\rm Mpc}/h$).
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 12/2013; 2014(02). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/02/030 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    J. Colin Hill, Enrico Pajer
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    ABSTRACT: We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the possible constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters achievable with measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) power spectrum from upcoming full-sky CMB observations, with a particular focus on one-parameter extensions to the LCDM standard model involving local primordial non-Gaussianity (described by fNL) and massive neutrinos (described by Mnu). We include all of the relevant physical effects due to these additional parameters, including the change to the halo mass function and the scale-dependent halo bias induced by local primordial non-Gaussianity. [...] We compute forecasts for Planck, PIXIE, and a cosmic variance (CV)-limited experiment, using multifrequency subtraction to remove foregrounds and implementing two masking criteria based on the ROSAT and eROSITA cluster catalogs to reduce the significant CV errors at low multipoles. We find that Planck can detect the tSZ power spectrum with >30-sigma significance, regardless of the masking scenario. However, neither Planck or PIXIE is likely to provide competitive constraints on fNL from the tSZ power spectrum due to CV noise at low-ell overwhelming the unique signature of the scale-dependent bias. A future CV-limited experiment could provide a 3-sigma detection of fNL~37, which is the WMAP9 maximum-likelihood result. The outlook for neutrino masses is more optimistic: Planck can reach levels comparable to the current upper bounds ~<0.3 eV with conservative assumptions about the intracluster medium (ICM); stronger ICM priors could allow Planck to provide 1-2-sigma evidence for massive neutrinos from the tSZ power spectrum, depending on the true value of the sum of the neutrino masses. We also forecast a ~<10% constraint on the outer slope of the ICM pressure profile using the unmasked Planck tSZ power spectrum.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 03/2013; 88(6). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.88.063526 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters from high-resolution microwave background maps at 148 GHz and 218 GHz made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in three seasons of observations from 2008 to 2010. A model of primary cosmological and secondary foreground parameters is fit to the map power spectra and lensing deflection power spectrum, including contributions from both the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect, Poisson and correlated anisotropy from unresolved infrared sources, radio sources, and the correlation between the tSZ effect and infrared sources. The power ell^2 C_ell/2pi of the thermal SZ power spectrum at 148 GHz is measured to be 3.4 +\- 1.4 muK^2 at ell=3000, while the corresponding amplitude of the kinematic SZ power spectrum has a 95% confidence level upper limit of 8.6 muK^2. Combining ACT power spectra with the WMAP 7-year temperature and polarization power spectra, we find excellent consistency with the LCDM model. We constrain the number of effective relativistic degrees of freedom in the early universe to be Neff=2.79 +\- 0.56, in agreement with the canonical value of Neff=3.046 for three massless neutrinos. We constrain the sum of the neutrino masses to be Sigma m_nu < 0.39 eV at 95% confidence when combining ACT and WMAP 7-year data with BAO and Hubble constant measurements. We constrain the amount of primordial helium to be Yp = 0.225 +\- 0.034, and measure no variation in the fine structure constant alpha since recombination, with alpha/alpha0 = 1.004 +/- 0.005. We also find no evidence for any running of the scalar spectral index, dns/dlnk = -0.004 +\- 0.012.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 01/2013; 2013(10):60. DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2013/10/060 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama Cosmology Telescope CMB lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing-quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z>1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ~ 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing cross-correlations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.
    Physical Review D 07/2012; 86(8). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.86.083006 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    J. Colin Hill, Blake D. Sherwin
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we explain how moments of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect can constrain both cosmological parameters and the astrophysics of the intracluster medium (ICM). As the tSZ signal is strongly non-Gaussian, higher moments of tSZ maps contain useful information. We first calculate the dependence of the tSZ moments on cosmological parameters, finding that higher moments scale more steeply with sigma_8 and are sourced by more massive galaxy clusters. Taking advantage of the different dependence of the variance and skewness on cosmological and astrophysical parameters, we construct a statistic, |<T^3>|/<T^2>^1.4, which cancels much of the dependence on cosmology (i.e., sigma_8) yet remains sensitive to the astrophysics of intracluster gas (in particular, to the gas fraction in low-mass clusters). Constraining the ICM astrophysics using this statistic could break the well-known degeneracy between cosmology and gas physics in tSZ measurements, allowing for tight constraints on cosmological parameters. Although detailed simulations will be needed to fully characterize the accuracy of this technique, we provide a first application to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the South Pole Telescope. We estimate that a Planck-like full-sky tSZ map could achieve a <1% constraint on sigma_8 and a 1-sigma error on the sum of the neutrino masses that is comparable to the existing lower bound from oscillation measurements.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 05/2012; 87(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.87.023527 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detection of the unnormalized skewness <T^3> induced by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect in filtered Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) 148 GHz cosmic microwave background temperature maps. Contamination due to infrared and radio sources is minimized by template subtraction of resolved sources and by constructing a mask using outlying values in the 218 GHz (tSZ-null) ACT maps. We measure <T^3>= -31 +- 6 \mu K^3 (measurement error only) or +- 14 \mu K^3 (including cosmic variance error) in the filtered ACT data, a 5-sigma detection. We show that the skewness is a sensitive probe of sigma_8, and use analytic calculations and tSZ simulations to obtain cosmological constraints from this measurement. From this signal alone we infer a value of sigma_8= 0.79 +0.03 -0.03 (68 % C.L.) +0.06 -0.06 (95 % C.L.). Our results demonstrate that measurements of non-Gaussianity can be a useful method for characterizing the tSZ effect and extracting the underlying cosmological information.
    Physical Review D 03/2012; 86(12). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.86.122005 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present follow-up observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) of optically-confirmed galaxy clusters found in the equatorial survey region of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): ACT-CL J0022-0036, ACT-CL J2051+0057, and ACT-CL J2337+0016. ACT-CL J0022-0036 is a newly-discovered, massive (10^15 Msun), high-redshift (z=0.81) cluster revealed by ACT through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). Deep, targeted observations with the SZA allow us to probe a broader range of cluster spatial scales, better disentangle cluster decrements from radio point source emission, and derive more robust integrated SZE flux and mass estimates than we can with ACT data alone. For the two clusters we detect with the SZA we compute integrated SZE signal and derive masses from the SZA data only. ACT-CL J2337+0016, also known as Abell 2631, has archival Chandra data that allow an additional X-ray-based mass estimate. Optical richness is also used to estimate cluster masses and shows good agreement with the SZE and X-ray-based estimates. Based on the point sources detected by the SZA in these three cluster fields and an extrapolation to ACT's frequency, we estimate that point sources could be contaminating the SZE decrement at the <= 20% level for some fraction of clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 751(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/751/1/12 · 6.28 Impact Factor