Angie Rupp

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (9)29.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is considered to be the canine equivalent of the human peripheral nerve disorder Guillain-Bar e syndrome (GBS); an aetiological relationship, however, remains to be demonstrated. In GBS, anti-glycolipid antibodies (Abs) are considered as important disease mediators. To address the possibility of common Ab biomarkers, the sera of 25 ACP dogs, 19 non-neurological, and 15 epileptic control dogs were screened for IgG Abs to 10 glycolipids and their 1 : 1 heteromeric complexes using combinatorial glycoarrays. Anti-GM2 ganglioside Abs were detected in 14/25 ACP dogs, and anti-GA1 Abs in one further dog. All controls except for one were negative for anti-glycolipid Abs. In this cohort of cases and controls, the glycoarray screen reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 97%; a lower sensitivity (32%) was reported using a conventional glycolipid ELISA. To address the possible pathogenic role for anti-GM2 Abs in ACP, we identified GM2 in canine sciatic nerve by both mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography overlay. In immunohistological studies, GM2 was localized predominantly to the abaxonal Schwann cell membrane. The presence of anti-GM2 Abs in ACP suggests that it may share a similar pathophysiology with GBS, for which it could thus be considered a naturally occurring animal model.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is considered to be the canine equivalent of the human peripheral nerve disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); an aetiological relationship, however, remains to be demonstrated. In GBS, anti-glycolipid antibodies (Abs) are considered as important disease mediators. To address the possibility of common Ab biomarkers, the sera of 25 ACP dogs, 19 non-neurological, and 15 epileptic control dogs were screened for IgG Abs to 10 glycolipids and their 1 : 1 heteromeric complexes using combinatorial glycoarrays. Anti-GM2 ganglioside Abs were detected in 14/25 ACP dogs, and anti-GA1 Abs in one further dog. All controls except for one were negative for anti-glycolipid Abs. In this cohort of cases and controls, the glycoarray screen reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 97%; a lower sensitivity (32%) was reported using a conventional glycolipid ELISA. To address the possible pathogenic role for anti-GM2 Abs in ACP, we identified GM2 in canine sciatic nerve by both mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography overlay. In immunohistological studies, GM2 was localized predominantly to the abaxonal Schwann cell membrane. The presence of anti-GM2 Abs in ACP suggests that it may share a similar pathophysiology with GBS, for which it could thus be considered a naturally occurring animal model.
    Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 03/2013; 18(1):75-88. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids highly enriched in neural plasma membranes, where they mediate a diverse range of functions and can act as targets for auto-antibodies present in human immune-mediated neuropathy sera. The ensuing autoimmune injury results in axonal and motor nerve terminal (mNT) degeneration. Both aging and ganglioside-deficiency have been linked to impaired axonal regeneration. To assess the effects of age and ganglioside expression on mNT regeneration in an autoimmune injury paradigm, anti-ganglioside antibodies and complement were applied to young adult and aged mice wildtype (WT) mice, mice deficient in either b- and c-series (GD3sKO) or mice deficient in all complex gangliosides (GM2sKO). The extent of mNT injury and regeneration was assessed immediately or after five days, respectively. Depending on ganglioside expression and antibody-specificity, either a selective mNT injury or a combined injury of mNTs and neuromuscular glial cells was elicited. Immediately after induction of the injury, between 1.5% and 11.8% of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in the young adult groups exhibited healthy mNTs. Five days later, most NMJs, regardless of age and strain, had recovered their mNTs. No significant differences could be observed between young and aged WT and GM2sKO mice; aged GD3sKO showed a mildly impaired rate of mNT regeneration when compared to their younger counterparts. Comparable rates were observed between all strains in the young and the aged mice. In summary, the rate of mNT regeneration following anti-ganglioside antibody and complement-mediated injury does not differ majorly between young adult and aged mice irrespective of the expression of particular gangliosides. Synapse, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Synapse 02/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Guillain-Barré syndrome subform acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), Campylobacter jejuni enteritis triggers the production of anti-ganglioside Abs (AGAbs), leading to immune-mediated injury of distal motor nerves. An important question has been whether injury to the presynaptic neuron at the neuromuscular junction is a major factor in AMAN. Although disease modeling in mice exposed to AGAbs indicates that complement-mediated necrosis occurs extensively in the presynaptic axons, evidence in humans is more limited, in comparison to the extensive injury seen at nodes of Ranvier. We considered that rapid AGAb uptake at the motor nerve terminal membrane might attenuate complement-mediated injury. We found that PC12 rat neuronal cells rapidly internalized AGAb, which were trafficked to recycling endosomes and lysosomes. Consequently, complement-mediated cytotoxicity was attenuated. Importantly, we observed the same AGAb endocytosis and protection from cytotoxicity in live mouse nerve terminals. AGAb uptake was attenuated following membrane cholesterol depletion in vitro and ex vivo, indicating that this process may be dependent upon cholesterol-enriched microdomains. In contrast, we observed minimal AGAb uptake at nodes of Ranvier, and this structure thus remained vulnerable to complement-mediated injury. These results indicate that differential endocytic processing of AGAbs by different neuronal and glial membranes might be an important modulator of site-specific injury in acute AGAb-mediated Guillain-Barré syndrome subforms and their chronic counterparts.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2012; 122(3):1037-51. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both the neural and glial components of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) have been identified as potential sites for anti-ganglioside antibody (Ab) binding and complement-mediated injury in murine models for the human peripheral nerve disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Some patients suffering from the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) forms of GBS recover very rapidly from paralysis; it has been proposed that in these cases the injury was restricted to the distal motor axons and nerve terminals (NTs) which are able to regenerate over a very short time-frame. To test this hypothesis, the ventral neck muscles of mice (n=45) expressing cytosolic fluorescent proteins in their axons (CFP) and Schwann cells (GFP) were subjected to a single topical application of anti-ganglioside Ab followed by a source of complement. Group A (n=15) received Ab that selectively bound to the NTs, group B (n=15) received Abs that bound both to the NTs and the perisynaptic Schwann cells (pSCs) and group C (control animals; n=15) only received complement. Evolution of the injury was documented by in vivo imaging, and following euthanasia the muscles were reimaged ex vivo both quantitatively and qualitatively, either immediately, or after 1, 2, 3 or 5 days of regeneration (each n=3 per group). Within 15 minutes of complement application, a rapid loss of CFP overlying the NMJ could be seen; in group A, the GFP signal remained unchanged, whereas in group B the GFP signal was also lost. In group C no changes to either CFP or GFP were observed. At 24 h, 6% of the superficial NMJs in group A and 12% of the NMJs in group B exhibited CFP. In both groups, CFP returned within the next five days (group A: 93.5%, group B: 94%; p=0.739), with the recovery of CFP being preceded by a return of GFP-positive cells overlying the NMJ in group B. Auxiliary investigations revealed that the loss of CFP at the NMJ correlated with a loss of NT neurofilament immuno-reactivity and a return of CFP at the NMJ was accompanied by a return of neurofilament. In ultrastructural investigations, injured NTs were electron lucent and exhibited damaged mitochondria, a loss of filaments and a loss of synaptic vesicles. The examination of muscles after five days of regeneration revealed physiological NT-profiles. The results described above indicate that following a single anti-ganglioside Ab-mediated and complement-mediated attack, independent of whether there are healthy and mature perisynaptic Schwann cells overlying the NMJ, the murine NT is capable of recovering both its architectural and axolemmal integrity very rapidly. This data supports the notion that an equivalent mechanism may account for the rapid recovery seen in some clinical cases of AMAN.
    Experimental Neurology 12/2011; 233(2):836-48. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Striking inconsistencies between the results of morphometric and electrophysiologic examinations of the regenerating nerve were observed in a previous study featuring the bridging of a 14 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. To shed light on this dichotomy, seven further rats were subjected to permanent sciatic nerve transection and assessed electrophysiologically, histologically and by retrograde axonal tracing at various postoperative intervals (1 h to 8 weeks). The results of the histological examinations and retrograde tracing revealed that in spite of the fact that compound muscle action potentials could be recorded in the gastrocnemius muscle, no reinnervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, either physiological or aberrant, had actually taken place. Furthermore, it was established that the electrical activity recorded in the gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation of the proximal or distal stump is generated by surrounding hind limb muscles unaffected by denervation. These are stimulated either directly, or indirectly due to spreading of the impulse. It is therefore strongly recommended that caution should be exercised when interpreting recordings from the gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation of a regenerating sciatic nerve in laboratory rodents.
    Journal of Neuroscience Methods 12/2007; 166(2):266-77. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severe functional deficits in patients suffering from traumatic peripheral nerve damage underline the necessity of an optimal therapy. The development of microsurgical techniques in the sixties contributed significantly to the progress in nerve repair. Since then, no major clinical innovation has become established. However, with an increased understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nerve regeneration, various tubulization concepts have been developed which yield possible alternatives to direct suturing and to autologous nerve grafting in cases of short nerve defects. The vast knowledge gathered in the field of nerve regeneration needs to be further exploited in order to develop alternative therapeutic strategies to nerve autografting, which can result in donor-site defects and often lead to inappropriate results. Considering the encouraging results from preclinical studies, innovative nerve repair strategies are likely to improve the outcome of reconstructive surgical interventions. This paper outlines, in addition to the fundamentals of nerve regeneration, the current treatment options for defects of peripheral nerves. This article also reviews the developments in the use of alternative nerve guides and demonstrates new perspectives in the field of peripheral nerve reconstruction.
    Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie 09/2007; 68(3):101-10. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sciatic nerve in the rat is the site most often used for peripheral nerve regeneration studies. The length of sciatic nerve available for research, however, depends on the point at which the sciatic nerve divides into the peroneal and tibial nerves. In the present study, the hind limbs of 150 adult male rats of five different strains (Sprague-Dawley, Fischer 344, Wistar-Han, Lewis and Nude) were analysed with regard to femur length, the point at which the sciatic nerve divides into the tibial and peroneal nerves, and where these are surrounded by the same epineurium, and the point at which they are encased in individual epineurial sheaths. The results indicate that the lengths of sciatic nerve are fairly constant in all strains of rats. In absolute terms, they amount to about one-third of the length of the femur for stretches of undivided sciatic nerve, and up to nearly half of the femur length for stretches where the tibial and peroneal nerves are already present, but are still enclosed by the same epineurium. In 61.7% of the hind limbs examined in Fischer rats, however, no sciatic nerve could be seen as such, but only in the form of its successors surrounded by the separate epineuria. This makes it highly advisable not to use male adult Fischer rats in peripheral nerve regeneration studies with the sciatic nerve as the point of focus.
    Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 07/2007; 36(3):202-8. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensory testing, by providing stimuli for nociceptors of the foot, is a popular method of evaluating sensory regeneration after damage to the sciatic nerve in the rat. In the following study, 20 rats were submitted to double transection of the sciatic nerve. The subsequent 14 mm gap was repaired through guidance interponation. In order to evaluate nerve regeneration, sensory testing was performed additionally to other methods, which included motor testing, morphometry, and electron microscopic assessments of nerves. Somatosensory testing revealed that all animals exhibited next to the same amount of sensory reinnervation on their foot regardless of their experimental group. In motor tests, however, two out of the three experimental groups did not improve at all. These groups also failed to show neural regrowth in morphometric and electron microscopic assessments of the associated nerve. Retrograde tracing was able to prove the saphenous nerve as an alternative source of sensory reinnervation in animals with failed sciatic regeneration. This means that results of sensory testing in the rat should be treated with caution, taking into account the areas tested and the likelihood that in these areas saphenous sprouting could have taken place. Furthermore, it is strongly advised that somatosensory testing should be conducted only on toe 5.
    Somatosensory and Motor Research 01/2007; 24(1-2):1-13. · 0.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

51 Citations
29.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • University of Glasgow
      • Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Institute of Pathology
      München, Bavaria, Germany