An Dinh

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (8)12.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance is of concern. Opioid agonist treatment (ie, methadone or buprenorphine) is effective and decreases HIV transmission risk behaviors and HIV seroconversion. Despite prevention efforts, injection drug use (IDU) and risky sexual behaviors remain prevalent in patients receiving opioid agonist treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine in HIV-infected patients receiving opioid agonist treatment, the prevalence of HIV transmission risk behaviors, the prevalence of ARV resistance, and the prevalence of ARV resistance among those with risk behaviors. METHODS:: The design was a cross-sectional study of patients recruited from opioid treatment programs and outpatient practices. We measured demographic, drug treatment, and HIV clinical information (including ARV adherence), self-reported HIV risk behaviors and drug use, urine toxicologies, and genotype testing for ARV resistance (with both standard assays and ultradeep sequencing). Data analysis included descriptive statistics. RESULTS:: Fifty-nine subjects were enrolled, 64% were male, 24% were white, and mean age was 46 years. Fifty-three percent were receiving methadone, 47% were receiving buprenorphine, and 80% were receiving opioid agonist treatment for 12 weeks or more. Fourteen percent reported unprotected sex, 7% reported sharing needles or works, and 60% had positive urine toxicology for illicit drug use. Fifteen percent had evidence of HIV resistance by standard genotyping; 7% with single class resistance, 3% with double class resistance, and 5% with triple class resistance. Ultradeep sequencing found additional class resistance in 5 subjects. Twenty-two percent of subjects with evidence of transmission risk behaviors versus 14% of subjects without risk behaviors had evidence of ARV resistance. CONCLUSIONS:: Improved prevention and treatment efforts may be needed for HIV-infected, opioid dependent individuals receiving opioid agonist treatment to decrease transmission of ARV resistant virus, especially in resource limited settings.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 02/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    Addiction science & clinical practice 10/2012; 7(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use depends on reliable identification. The goal of this study was to determine the rate of detection of unhealthy substance use by physicians on teaching and nonteaching medical services at a community teaching hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2009. All new medicine admissions to the Teaching Service or the nonteaching Hospitalist Service were assessed for unhealthy substance use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). All patients identified with substance use completed the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Medical record review was also performed to assess physician documentation. Results: Of 442 eligible patients, 414 consented to participate. Patients on the Teaching Service were more likely to be male, younger, unmarried, non-white, uninsured or receiving publicly funded insurance, and current smokers (p < .01 for all comparisons). Overall, the detection rate for unhealthy substance use was 64.3% (63 of 98 confirmed cases), with service-specific rates of 73.4% for the Teaching Service, compared with 47.1% for the Hospitalist Service (p = .011). ICD-9 coding accounted for 53.1% of identified cases on the Teaching Service and 14.7% of identified cases on the Hospitalist Service (p < .001). Assignment to the Hospitalist Service, being married, and isolated unhealthy drug use were independently associated with decreased physician detection rates. Conclusions: Our study suggests that unhealthy substance use is more likely to be detected on a Teaching Service than on a Hospitalist Service.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We sought to determine the feasibility and impact of brief alcohol/ sexual risk reduction counseling with rapid HIV testing in the emergency department (ED). Methods: We recruited 18-40 year olds with unhealthy alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and negative/unknown HIV status and assessed for differences in their alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviors at baseline versus 2 months. Results: Participants (n = 85) were 61% male, mean age 26 years old, 59% white, 92% unmarried, 57% college educated, 45% without a regular doctor, and 80% with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥8. All rapid HIV tests were negative. Among the 70 (82%) with follow-up, alcohol consumption decreased with fewer average weekly drinks (23.6 vs. 9.8, p = .003) and binge drinking episodes (2.0 vs. .9, p = .012). Post-intervention, sexual risk decreased, including increased condom use (23% vs. 46%, p = .007). Women had a greater decrease in alcohol use prior to sex compared with men (p = .021 for interaction). Conclusions: Alcohol/sexual risk reduction counseling with HIV testing in the ED is feasible and potentially effective for reducing alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among young unhealthy drinkers. Scientific Significance: Future randomized controlled trials are warranted to assess efficacy of this intervention, which would provide young at-risk populations with important preventive services, which they may not have access to otherwise.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 07/2012; 38(6):539-43. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidity can adversely affect opioid dependence treatment outcomes. While the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity among patients seeking methadone maintenance treatment has been documented, the extent to which these findings extend to patients seeking primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment is unclear. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of mood and substance use disorders among patients seeking primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment, via cross sectional survey. METHODS: 237 consecutive patients seeking primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment were evaluated using modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Current (past 30days) and past diagnoses were cataloged separately. RESULTS: Patients ranged in age from 18 to 62years old (M=33.9, SD=9.9); 173 (73%) were men; 197 (83%) were white. Major depression was the most prevalent mood disorder (19% current, 24% past). A minority of patients met criteria for current dysthymia (6%), past mania (1%), or past hypomania (2%). While 37 patients (16%) met criteria for current abuse of or dependence on at least one non-opioid substance (7% cocaine, 4% alcohol, 4% cannabis, 2% sedatives, 0.4% stimulants, 0.4% polydrug), 168 patients (70%) percent met criteria for past abuse of or dependence on at least one non-opioid substance (43% alcohol, 38% cannabis, 30% cocaine, 9% sedatives, 8% hallucinogens, 4% stimulants, 1% polydrug, and 0.4% other substances). CONCLUSION: Mood and substance use comorbidity is prevalent among patients seeking primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. The findings support the need for clinicians to assess and address these conditions.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 07/2012; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of unhealthy substance use (USU) among medical inpatients can vary, and prior research has not characterized the prevalence of USU among patients cared for by a teaching service (TS) and a nonteaching hospitalist service (NTHS). The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of USU among patients cared for by a TS and an NTHS. We conducted a cross-sectional study from February to June 2009 at a community teaching hospital. Within 24 hours of admission, all eligible internal medicine admissions to the TS or NTHS were screened for USU, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Patients screening positive then underwent a diagnostic interview and blinded chart review to increase case finding and to assess whether each patient's admission was related to USU. There were 414 eligible and consenting patients out of 656 patients identified. Patients on the TS were younger and more likely to be current smokers, male, unmarried, non-white, and unemployed (p<.01 for all comparisons). TS patients were more likely to have evidence of USU (29.2% vs. 12.3%; p<.01). Among all admissions to the TS, 22.2% were deemed to be probably or possibly due to USU, as compared with only 3.7% of admissions to the NTHS (p<.01). Medical TSs care for a greater share of patients with USU as compared with an NTHS. These data highlight the need for expanded medical resident training in the diagnosis and management of USU.
    American Journal on Addictions 03/2012; 21(2):111-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Despite the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for annual HIV testing of at-risk populations, including those with substance use disorders, there are no data on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing practices of buprenorphine-prescribing physicians. : To describe HIV testing practices among buprenorphine-prescribing physicians. : We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians enrolled in a national system to support buprenorphine prescribing between July and August 2008. The electronic survey included questions on demographics; clinical training and experience; clinical practice; patient characteristics; and physician screening practices, including HIV testing. : Only 46% of 382 respondent physicians conducted HIV testing. On univariate analysis, physicians who conducted HIV testing were more likely to report addiction specialty training (33% vs 19%, P = 0.001), practicing in addiction settings (28% vs 16%, P = 0.006), and having treated more than 50 patients with buprenorphine (50% vs 31%, P < 0.0001) than those who did not. Compared with physicians who did not conduct HIV testing, physicians who conducted HIV testing had a lower proportion of buprenorphine patients who were white (75% vs 82%, P = 0.01) or dependent upon prescription opioids (57% vs 70%, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, physicians who conducted HIV testing were more likely to have treated more than 50 patients with buprenorphine (odds ratio = 1.777, 95% CI 1.011-3.124) and had fewer patients dependent upon prescription opioids (odds ratio = 0.986 95% CI 0.975-0.998) than physicians who did not. : Interventions to increase HIV testing among physicians prescribing buprenorphine are needed.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 02/2012; 6(2):159-65. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P < .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P < .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P < .05) and lower education (P < .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%) and its side effects (38%). The study population's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS.
    Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 12/2011; · 1.06 Impact Factor