[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The goals of this study were to monitor the effect of drinking of herbal tea from Sideritis clandestina subsp. clandestina for 6 weeks on behavioral and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of adult male mice and also to evaluate its phytochemical composition. METHODS: The phytochemical profile of the Sideritis tea was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface. The effects of two doses of the herbal infusion (2 and 4% w/v, daily) intake on anxiety-like state in mice were studied by the assessment of their thigmotactic behavior. The oxidant/antioxidant status of brain (-Ce), liver and heart of adult male Balb-c mice following the consumption of Sideritis tea was also evaluated via the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels using fluorometric assays. Our study was further extended to determine the antioxidant effects of the herbal tea on specific brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and midbrain). RESULTS: The identified compounds were classified into several natural product classes: quinic acid derivatives, iridoids, phenylethanol glycosides and flavonoids. Our results showed that only the 4% Sideritis tea exhibited anxiolytic-like properties as evidenced by statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the thigmotaxis time and increase in the number of entries to the central zone in comparison with the control group. Consumption of both tea doses (2 and 4% w/v) elevated GSH (12 and 28%, respectively, p < 0.05) and decreased MDA (16 and 29%, p < 0.05) levels in brain (-Ce), while liver and heart remained unaffected. In regard to the effect of herbal tea drinking (2 and 4% w/v) on specific brain regions, it caused a significant increase in GSH of cerebellum (13 and 36%, respectively, p < 0.05) and midbrain (17 and 36%, p < 0.05). Similarly, MDA levels were decreased in cerebellum (45 and 79%, respectively, p < 0.05) and midbrain (50 and 63%, respectively, p < 0.05), whereas cerebral cortex remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Mountain tea drinking prevents anxiety-related behaviors and confers antioxidant protection to rodent's tissues in a region-specific, dose-dependent manner, and its phytochemical constituents are shown for the first time.
European Journal of Nutrition 12/2011; · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d(6), which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the "appearance" of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D (1)H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d(6); (ii) a subsequent 1D (1)H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D (1)H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO(3), which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d(4), of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed (1)H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since (1)H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A(e), is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The (1)H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh Souvlaki-type lamb meat was packaged under vacuum (VP) and modified atmospheres (MAs) and stored under refrigeration (4°C) for a period of 13 days. The following gas mixtures were used: M1: 30%/70% (CO2/N2) and M2: 70%/30% (CO2/N2). Identical samples were aerobically-packaged and used as control samples. Quality evaluation of product stored under the above packaging conditions was conducted using physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Of the chemical parameters determined, pH values of product showed no significant differences for all packaging treatments as a function of storage time. Lipid oxidation of lamb meat was enhanced by aerobic storage and gas mixture M1, whereas VP and gas mixture M2 controlled lipid oxidation to a greater extent. Souvlaki colour stability (as determined by a∗, b∗ and L∗ values) was not negatively affected by either VP or MA conditions during the 13 days of storage. Of the two MAs and VP used, gas mixture M2 and VP were the most effective treatments for the inhibition of total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., yeasts and Brochothrix thermosphacta in Souvlaki meat. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were also found in the microbial flora of Souvlaki and increased during storage under all packaging conditions used. Based on microbiological analysis data and on the proposed a∗ values, the use of VP and MAP (M2: 70%CO2/30N2) extended the shelf-life of “Souvlaki” meat stored at 4°C by approximately 4–5 days compared to aerobic packaging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overall migration from a wide range of commercial plastics-based netting materials destined to be used as either meat or vegetable packaging materials into the fatty food simulant isooctane or the aqueous simulant distilled water, respectively, was studied. In addition, sensory tests of representative netting materials were carried out in bottled water in order to investigate possible development of off-odour/taste and discoloration in this food simulant as a result of migration from the netting material. Sensory tests were supplemented by determination of the volatile compounds' profile in table water exposed to the netting materials using SPME-GC/MS. Test conditions for packaging material/food simulant contact and method of overall migration analysis were according to European Union Directives 90/128 (EEC, 1990) and 2002/72 (EEC, 2002). The results showed that for both PET and polyethylene-based netting materials, overall migration values into distilled water ranged between 11.5 and 48.5 mg l(-1), well below the upper limit (60 mg l(-1)) for overall migration values from plastics-packaging materials set by the European Union. The overall migration values from netting materials into isooctane ranged between 38.0 and 624.0 mg l(-1), both below and above the European Union upper limit for migration. Sensory tests involving contact of representative samples with table water under refluxing (100 degrees C/4 h) conditions showed a number of the netting materials produced both off-odour and/or taste as well as discoloration of the food simulant rendering such materials unfit for the packaging of foodstuffs in applications involving heating at elevated temperatures. GC/MS analysis showed the presence of numerous volatile compounds being produced after netting materials/water contact under refluxing conditions. Although it is extremely difficult to establish a clear correlation between sensory off-odour development and GC/MS volatile compounds' profile, it may be postulated that plastics oxidation products such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 2,6 di-tert-butylquinone may contribute to off-odour development using commercially bottled table water as a food simulant. Likewise, compounds such as carbon disulfide, [1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ol and propanoic acid, 2 methyl 1-(1,1-dimethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl ester probably originating from cotton and rubber components of netting materials may also contribute to off-odour/taste development.
Food Additives and Contaminants 07/2006; 23(6):634-41. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of ozonation in aqueous solution (O3 concentration=1 mg/l, time of ozonation: 60 and 90 min) on the shelf-life of shucked, vacuum-packaged mussels, stored under refrigeration was studied by monitoring the microbiological, chemical and sensory changes occurring in mussel samples, for a period of 12 days. Non-ozonated vacuum-packaged mussels served as the control sample. Ozonation affected populations of bacteria namely, aerobic plate count (APC) (0.7–2.1 log cycle reduction), Pseudomonas spp. (0.5–1.1 log cycle reduction) and H2S-producing bacteria (1.1–2.5 log cycle reduction), Brochothrix thermosphacta (0.3–1.4 log cycle reduction), lactic acid bacteria (0.3–0.8 log cycle reduction) and Enterobacteriaceae (0.5–1.5 log cycle reduction). The effect of ozonation was more pronounced at the longer time of ozonation. Of the chemical indicators of spoilage monitored, trimethylamine values of all mussel samples remained relatively low throughout the entire storage period, attaining values of 7.5, 6.0 and 6.4 mg N/100 g for the control and ozonated for 60 and 90 min samples, respectively, on day 12 of storage. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values similarly remained relatively low (⩽20 mg N/100 g) until day 6 of storage, and increased to 31.9, 24.2 and 26.9 mg N/100 g mussel meat for the control and ozonated for 60 and 90 min samples, respectively, on day 12 of storage. Initial TBA values were surprisingly high (30–35 mg MA/kg) and decreased to 23.0, 21.7 and 13.3 mg MA/kg mussel meat on day 12 of storage for the control and the ozonated for 60 and 90 min samples, respectively. Sensory evaluation (odor, taste and texture) of cooked mussels showed a good correlation with bacterial populations. On the basis of sensory analyses, a shelf-life of 12 days was obtained for vacuum-packaged mussels ozonated for 90 min as compared to a shelf-life of 9 days for the control sample.