Wan Ho Kim

Konyang University Hospital, Gaigeturi, Jeju-do, South Korea

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Publications (18)29.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Both carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaque are important factors in the primary prevention of cardiac disease. However, it is unclear which one is more important for prognosis, especially in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In total, 1426 consecutive CAD patients, proven by angiography, were followed-up for a mean of 85 months. The study population was divided into four groups depending on the CIMT (≥0.83 mm, >95 percentile in Korea) and the presence or absence of carotid plaque. Patients with carotid plaque and thick CIMT (n=237, 16.6%) had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia than those had plaque and thin CIMT (n=213, 14.9%), those without plaque and thick CIMT (n=265, 18.6%) and those without plaque and thin CIMT (n=711, 49.9%). The patients with carotid plaque and thick CIMT group had a higher cardiac mortality rate (20.7% vs. 13.1%, 9.4% and 3.9%, respectively, p<0.001) and higher major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including death, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke (27.8% vs. 18.8%, 15.5% and 9.3%, respectively, p<0.001) than any other groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the presence of carotid plaque with thick CIMT had the highest hazard ratio (HR) compared to other groups (HR 2.23 vs. 1.81, 2.01) for cardiac mortality. Also, carotid plaque had a higher HR than CIMT for mortality (HR 1.56 vs. 1.37) and MACE (HR 1.54 vs. 1.36) in the total study population. Carotid plaque is a more important prognostic factor than CIMT in patients with CAD, and adding a thick CIMT to carotid plaque increases the prognostic power for cardiac events.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2015; 45(1):28-37. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.1.28
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop a health needs assessment (HNA) tool for persons with brain disorders and to assess the unmet needs of persons with brain disorders using the developed tool. The authors used consensus methods to develop a HNA tool. Using a randomized stratified systematic sampling method adjusted for sex, age, and districts, 57 registered persons (27 severe and 30 mild cases) with brain disorders dwelling in Seoul, South Korea were chosen and medical specialists investigated all of the subjects with the developed tools. THE HNA TOOL FOR BRAIN DISORDERS WE DEVELOPED INCLUDED FOUR CATEGORIES: 1) medical interventions and operations, 2) assistive devices, 3) rehabilitation therapy, and 4) regular follow-up. This study also found that 71.9% of the subjects did not receive appropriate medical care, which implies that the severity of their disability is likely to be exacerbated and permanent, and the loss irrecoverable. Our results showed that the HNA tool for persons with brain disorders based on unmet needs defined by physicians can be a useful method for evaluating the appropriateness and necessity of medical services offered to the disabled, and it can serve as the norm for providing health care services for disabled persons. Further studies should be undertaken to increase validity and reliability of the tool. Fundamental research investigating the factors generating or affecting the unmet needs is necessary; its results could serve as basis for developing policies to eliminate or alleviate these factors.
    09/2013; 46(5):282-90. DOI:10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.282
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the validity and reliability of the Korean version World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL)-BREF among people with physical impairments living in a community. Participants listed in the community-based rehabilitation project were recruited from 45 public health centers. People with brain lesions or physical disabilities were selected. Respondents (n=750) filled out the Korean WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Obtained data were analyzed statistically to assess the internal consistency as well as the construct and discriminant validity. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Cronbach's α for the total score was 0.839. The value for each domain ranged from 0.746 to 0.849. Pearson correlation coefficient between each domain ranged from 0.539 to 0.717. The highest correlation was between the psychological and physical domain. The item-domain correlation indicated a significant correlation with their original domains. A multiple regression analysis of each domain with two overall questions was performed. The psychological domain made the strongest contribution with the overall quality of life (unstandardized coefficient B=0.065, r(2)=0.437). When general health satisfaction was considered as a dependent variable, the physical domain most strongly contributed to the variable (unstandardized coefficient B=0.081, r(2)=0.462). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors in the WHOQOL-BREF, accounting for 55.29% of the variability. To assess the discriminant validity, a comparison of each domain with Modified Barthel Index (MBI) was conducted. There were highly significant changes across the MBI scores with the WHOQOL-BREF domains (p<0.001). Korean WHOQOL-BREF is a valid and reliable tool to measure the quality of life for people with physical impairments. It has good internal consistency, construct validity and discriminant validity for the population. Further study with a stratified sample is needed.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 08/2013; 37(4):488-97. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.4.488
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear which plaque component is related with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery occlusive disease (CAOD). We assessed the relationship between plaque compositions and long-term clinical outcomes in those patients. The study subjects consisted of 339 consecutive patients (mean 61.7±12.2 years old, 239 males) who underwent coronary angiogram and a virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound examination. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, and target vessel revascularization were evaluated during a mean 28-month follow-up period. Patients with high fibrofatty volume (FFV, >8.90 mm(3), n=169) had a higher incidence of MACCE (25.4% vs. 14.7%, p=0.015), male sex (75.7% vs. 65.3%, p=0.043), acute coronary syndrome (53.3% vs. 35.9%, p=0.002), multivessel disease (62.7% vs. 41.8%, p<0.001) and post-stent slow flow (10.7% vs. 2.4%, p=0.002) than those with low FFV (FFV≤8.90 mm(3), n=170). Other plaque composition factors such as fibrous area/volume, dense calcified area/volume, and necrotic core area/volume did not show any impact on MACCE. Cardiogenic shock {hazard ratio (HR)=8.44; 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.00-23.79; p<0.001} and FFV (HR=1.85; 95% CI=1.12-3.07; p=0.016) were the independent predictors of MACCE by Cox regression analysis. Thin-cap fibroatheroma, necrotic core area, and necrotic core volume were not associated with MACCE. FFV of a culprit lesion was associated with unfavorable long-term clinical outcomes in patients with CAOD.
    Korean Circulation Journal 06/2013; 43(6):377-83. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.6.377
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2013; 61(10). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(13)61694-0 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to have large necrotic core in their coronary plaque compared to non-DM patients. We assessed coronary plaque composition in patients with angina and with/without DM according to glucose control. Study subjects consisted of 114 non-DM patients, 14 well-controlled DM patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] <7.0%), and 37 poorly controlled DM patients (HbA1c ≥7%) who underwent virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) examinations of culprit lesions. The DM patients had longer lesion length (20.2 ± 7.8 mm vs 17.0 ± 7.3 mm; P=.013) than non-DM patients. The plaque volume was highest in the poorly-controlled DM patients (188.9 ± 92.6 mm³) compared with the non-DM patients (144.1 ± 92.3 mm³; P=.011) and the well-controlled DM patients (151.7 ± 82.4 mm³; P=.194). The well-controlled DM patients had less dense calcium (0.33 ± 0.14 mm³/mm vs 0.71 ± 0.60 mm³/mm; P=.020) and less necrotic core (0.71 ± 0.48 mm³/mm vs 1.30 ± 0.94 mm³/mm; P=.029) than the poorly-controlled DM patients and had similar amounts of dense calcium and necrotic core with non-DM patients, whereas fibrous and fibro-fatty volume showed no significant differences among the groups. Coronary plaque composition and plaque volume in well-controlled DM patients are similar to those in non-DM patients and both groups had less dense calcium and necrotic core volume than the poorly-controlled DM patients. These findings suggest hyperglycemia control is important in DM patients with angina.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 03/2013; 25(3):137-41. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the subjective assessments of nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA] and scored patient-generated subjective global assessment [PG-SGA]), compared with the objective (hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric) assessments, and to identify the correlation between the MNA and the scored PG-SGA in elderly patients with stroke. Thirty-five stroke patients, aged 60 to 89 years old, participated in our study. The MNA, the scored PG-SGA and objective factors were evaluated. The objective malnutrition state was defined based on laboratory outcomes. According to the MNA and the scored PG-SGA classifications, total patients were respectively divided into three groups; well-nourished (W), at risk of malnutrition (R), and malnourished (M), and into four groups; normally nourished (A), suspected or mildly malnourished (B), moderately malnourished (C), and severely malnourished (D). Mean age and body mass index of subjects were 70.6 years and 22.2 kg/m(2), respectively. Twenty-six (74.3%) patients were identified to be at an objectively malnourished state. In MNA, 3 (8.6%) patients were classified as group W, 13 (37.1%) as R, and 19 (54.3%) as M. Total MNA scores and three categorization had mild correlation with objective grouping (r=0.383, r=0.350, p<0.05, respectively). Restructuring into two groups by combining group R and M made strong correlation (r=0.520, p<0.01). On the basis of scored PG-SGA, 6 (17.1%) patients were sorted as group A, 10 (28.6%) as B, 15 (42.9%) as C, and 4 (11.4%) as D, respectively. Total scores and the grouping into four indicated meaningful correlation with the objective distinction (r=-0.403, p<0.05, r=0.449, p<0.01, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the MNA scores and the PG-SGA scores (r=-0.651, p<0.01). It is proposed that the MNA and the scored PG-SGA would be useful in screening malnourished elderly patients with stroke.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2013; 37(1):66-71. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.66
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. We sought to evaluate the relation between hypercholesterolemia and plaque composition in patients with coronary artery disease. Study subjects consisted of 323 patients (mean 61.5 years, 226 males) who underwent coronary angiography and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound examination. Patients were divided into two groups according to total cholesterol level: hypercholesterolemic group (≥200 mg/dL, n=114) and normocholesterolemic group (<200 mg/dL, n=209). Hypercholesterolemic patients were younger (59.7±13.3 years vs. 62.6±11.5 years, p=0.036), than normocholesterolemic patients, whereas there were no significant differences in other demographics. Hypercholesterolemic patients had higher corrected necrotic core volume (1.23±0.85 mm(3)/mm vs. 1.02±0.80 mm(3)/mm, p=0.029) as well as percent necrotic core volume (20.5±8.5% vs. 18.0±9.2%, p=0.016) than normocholesterolemic patients. At the minimal lumen area site, percent necrotic core area (21.4±10.5% vs. 18.4±11.3%, p=0.019) and necrotic core area (1.63±1.09 mm(2) vs. 1.40±1.20 mm(2), p=0.088) were also higher than normocholesterolemic patients. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that total cholesterol level was an independent factor of percent necrotic core volume in the culprit lesion after being adjusted with age, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol , hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and acute coronary syndrome (beta 0.027, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.053, p=0.037). Hypercholesterolemia was associated with increased necrotic core volume in coronary artery plaque. This study suggests that hypercholesterolemia plays a role in making plaque more complex, which is characterized by a large necrotic core, in coronary artery disease.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2013; 43(1):23-8. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.1.23
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associating factors of fear of falling (FOF) and the correlations between FOF and quality of life (QOL) on subacute stroke patients in Korea. Fifty hemiplegic subacute stroke patients in our clinic were recruited. We directly asked patients with their fear of falling and interviewed them with the Korean version of falls efficacy scale-international (KFES-I). We divided the participants into two groups; with FOF and without FOF. We compared these groups with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor, ankle plantar flexor, functional ambulation category (FAC) scale, stroke specific quality of life (SSQOL), and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS). Thirty-four participants were enrolled, and more than half of the patients with subacute stroke had FOF. We compared the patients with and without FOF. According to the results, FOF was associated with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor, FAC, total SSQOL, and domains (energy, mobility, self care, upper extremity function) of SSQOL (p<0.05). FOF was also associated with the anxiety score of HADS (p<0.05). KFES-I had a significant negative correlation with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor, FAC, total SSQOL, and domains (energy, mobility, self care, upper extremity function) of SSQOL (p<0.01). The FOF was associated with not only QOL but also with the physical and psychological factors, and in particular, anxiety. Therefore, further concerns about FOF in subacute stroke patients might be required.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 12/2012; 36(6):797-803. DOI:10.5535/arm.2012.36.6.797
  • Wen Pan · Ze Jun Ma · Zhi Xing Zhao · Wan Ho Kim · Dong Joon Min
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    ABSTRACT: Compacts of Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 doped with varying amounts of Na2O were isothermally reduced at several temperatures, using CO/CO2 mixed gas in a vertical resistance furnace. To determine the effect of Na2O on the reduction of Fe2O3 compacts, the mass loss due to oxygen removal was continuously recorded, from which the reduction rate and rate constant were obtained. Na2O was found to retard the reduction of Fe2O3 compacts. The apparent activation energy (E a) of reaction and the mathematical relationship for pore gas diffusion suggested that the reduction behavior at the initial stages was controlled by a combination of pore gas diffusion and interfacial chemical reaction. At the intermediate and late stages of reduction, pore gas diffusion was the sole contributing factor. Morphological examination of the reduced compacts showed the formation of a liquid phase during the reduction process, which appeared to lower the rate of reaction.
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 12/2012; 43(6). DOI:10.1007/s11663-012-9738-z · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detecting signs of learning in persons diagnosed to be in a post-coma vegetative state and minimally conscious state (MCS) may modify their diagnosis. We report the case of a 65-year-old female in a vegetative state. We used microswitch-based technology that is based on patient response to eye-blinking. We followed an ABABCB design, in which A represented baseline periods, B intervention periods with stimuli contingent on the responses, and C a control condition with stimuli presented non-contingently. We observed the level of response during the B phases was higher than the level of A and C phases. This indicated the patient showed signs of learning. This state was confirmed by an evaluation through the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRSR) score, and after completion of this study her CRSR score changed from 4 to 10. We believe microswitch technology may be useful to make a diagnosis of MCS and offer new opportunities for education to MCS patients.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 06/2012; 36(3):428-31. DOI:10.5535/arm.2012.36.3.428
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    ABSTRACT: To verify the influence of sour taste on swallowing and the presence of reflex cough when sour material was swallowed in patients with dysphagia secondary to brain injury. Fifty dysphagic brain injury patients who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were recruited. The patients who had shown severe aspiration at 2 ml of liquid were excluded. The dysphagic patients were given 5 ml each of a sour tasting liquid (SOUR) and a thin liquid barium (LIQUID) in random order. An expert analyzed the result of VFSS by reviewing recorded videotapes. Analysis components consisted of the Penetration-Aspiration-Scale (PAS) score, oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), pharyngeal delay time (PDT) and the reflex cough presence. The PAS score for SOUR was significantly lower than the one for LIQUID (p=0.03). The mean OTT for SOUR was significantly shortened compared to that for LIQUID (p=0.03). The mean PTT and PDT were also shortened in SOUR, although the differences were not statistically significant (p=0.26 and p=0.32, respectively). There was no significant difference between SOUR and LIQUID regarding the presence of reflex cough (p=1.00). The sour taste could enhance sensorimotor feedback in the oropharynx, thus lowering the chances of penetration-aspiration caused by shortening of the oropharyngeal passage times. There was no significant difference in the presence of reflex cough produced between LIQUID and SOUR.
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 06/2012; 36(3):365-70. DOI:10.5535/arm.2012.36.3.365
  • Kwang Lae Lee · Wan Ho Kim · Eun Joo Kim · Ju Kang Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk and severity of penetration-aspiration with mixed consistency (MIX), which consists of cooked rice and thin liquid barium (LIQUID), are different from the risks and severities with each single consistency (cooked rice or LIQUID) in dysphagic patients. Dysphagic patients (N = 29) performed a videofluoroscopic swallowing study with the following foods: cooked rice, LIQUID, and MIX. Several components were analyzed using recorded videotapes. The Penetration-Aspiration Scale score for MIX was significantly lower than that for LIQUID (P < 0.016). The location of the leading edge at the onset of a pharyngeal swallow between MIX and LIQUID was not different (P = 0.705). The pharyngeal delay time of LIQUID was delayed significantly compared with that of MIX (0.142 ± 0.267 and -0.149 ± 0.096 sec, respectively, P < 0.016). The severity of pharyngeal residue among the foods was different according to the location. Swallowing of MIX is not dangerous, and it is safer for not inducing penetration-aspiration as compared with the swallowing of LIQUID. The risk of penetration-aspiration may be judged depending on not only a food's consistency but also on various factors that affect airway protection, including the texture of food.
    American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 03/2012; 91(3):187-92. DOI:10.1097/PHM.0b013e318238a0e3 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated which plaque components are associated with long-term clinical events in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study subjects consisted of 57 consecutive patients (mean age, 58.5±14.5 years; 45 males) who underwent primary PCI and a virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound examination. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization were evaluated during the mean 28 month follow-up period. Patients with high fibro-fatty volume (FFV >13.4 mm(3), n=29; mean age, 61.3 years) had a lower ejection fraction (52.7% vs. 59.4%, p=0.022), a higher incidence of multi-vessel disease (69.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.002), larger plaque area (25.7 mm(2) vs. 15.9 mm(2), p<0.001), and larger plaque volume (315 mm(3) vs. 142 mm(3), p<0.001) than those with a low FFV (≤13.4 mm(3), n=28; mean age, 55.6 years). Patients with high FFV had a significantly higher incidence (32.1% vs. 8.3%, p=0.036) of MACE than those with low FFV. When we divided the study population according to the necrotic core volume (NCV), fibrous volume, or dense calcified volume, no significant findings in terms of demographics and MACE rates were observed. A Cox regression analysis revealed that the independent factor for MACE was FFV (hazard ratio, 6.748; 95% confidence interval, 1.168-38.971, p=0.033) in this study population. The coronary plaque component, particularly FFV, but not NCV, was important in long-term clinical outcomes in patients who underwent primary PCI.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2012; 42(1):33-9. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.1.33
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is still controversial whether carotid plaque is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of carotid plaque on long term clinical outcomes especially in patients with CAD. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1390 consecutive patients with angiographically proven CAD. All subjects underwent carotid scanning 1day before or after coronary angiogram and were followed up for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, restenosis and hospitalization for heart failure) during a mean of 54.2±23.9months. RESULTS: Patients with carotid plaque (n=433) were older, had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and acute coronary syndrome (34.2% vs. 24.6%, p<0.001) than those without carotid plaque (n=957). On univariate analysis, the presence of carotid plaque was a predictor of cardiac death, hard MACE (death, myocardial infarction and stroke) and total MACE, whereas carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was a predictor of total MACE. Multivariate analysis revealed that carotid plaque was associated with cardiac death (HR 6.99, 95% CI 1.88-25.95, p=0.004), hard MACE (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.18-3.04, p=0.008) and total MACE (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.90, p=0.004), whereas CIMT was associated only with total MACE (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.81, p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Carotid plaque is a strong predictor of future cardiac death and MACE in patients with CAD. This study suggests that carotid plaque has additional value for secondary prevention and more important prognostic factor than CIMT in patients with CAD.
    International journal of cardiology 12/2011; 166(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.11.084 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Wan Ho Kim · Dong Joon Min
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of using hydrogen to lower CO2 emissions in the iron-making process was confirmed by the heat and mass balances in the blast furnace operation. The mass and heat balances for hydrogen utilization in the blast furnace were estimated by using the basic concept of RIST operating diagram. In this study, the RIST operating diagram was modified to be suitable for representing the operation with respect to hydrogen, where the RIST operating diagram is a graphical representation of heat and mass balance in blast furnace operation. RIST operating diagram was applied here to some individual parameters of interest such as H2 injection in blast furnace process to reduce coke (carbon consumption). It was observed that the point W moved to the right in the RIST operating diagram under the condition of increasing hydrogen injection at tuyere, which originates from the contribution of gas composition (O/H2) equilibrated with Fe/FeO at a certain temperature. Point P also moved downward due to heat requirement with respect to hydrogen utilization, by which the new RIST operating diagram for hydrogen utilization was able to be constructed. Under the condition of hydrogen injection, the expected overall carbon consumption in the blast furnace decreased due to the contribution of hydrogen.
    Science China Technological Sciences 07/2011; 54(7):1655-1660. DOI:10.1007/s11431-011-4387-z · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Hyuk Kim · Wan Ho Kim · Il Sohn · Dong Joon Min
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    ABSTRACT: The viscosities of CaO-SiO2-20 wt%Al2O3-MgO slags (CaO/SiO2 = 1.0–1.2, wt%MgO = 5–13) were measured to estimate the effect of MgO on the viscous behaviour at elevated temperatures. The slag viscosity at 1773 K decreased with increasing MgO contents, which was typical of a basic oxide component at relatively low basicity (CaO/SiO2) of 1.0. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the slag structure seems to verify this behaviour. However, an unexpected contradiction with the temperature dependence was observed above 10 wt%MgO and above CaO/SiO2 of 1.2. Although the apparent activation energy was expected to decrease with additions of the basic oxide component MgO, the apparent activation energy increased. This unexpected behaviour seems to be related to the change in the primary phase field correlating to the phase diagram corresponding to the slag composition. Therefore, in order to understand the viscosity at both high Al2O3 and MgO, not only should the typical depolymerization of the slag structure with high MgO content be considered but also the primary phases of which the molten slag originates.
    04/2010; 81(4):261 - 264. DOI:10.1002/srin.201000019
  • Eun Joo Kim · Hong Chae Kim · Wan Ho Kim
    Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 11/2008; 89(11). DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2008.09.056 · 2.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

38 Citations
29.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju-do, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Konyang University
      Ronsan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea