D M Arm

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

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Publications (5)11.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of four bisphenol A-based polyphosphates and phosphonates was accomplished. The polymerization involved a condensation between bisphenol A and a phosphorodichloridate. The heterophasic polycondensation technique was used with the aid of a phase transfer catalyst to yield molecular weights in the range of 20,000–40,000. The polymers were characterized by FT-IR, FT-NMR, and DSC. Systematic studies on the interfacial polymerization indicated that a more concentrated organic phase and a slight excess of diol favored the production of high molecular weight polymers. An optimum concentration of 5–10 mol % was observed for three different phase transfer catalysts. Kinetic studies showed that the polymerization was complete within the first 10 min. The degree of agitation was shown to be important, as the overhead mechanical stirrer was not as effective as the blender. In addition, crosslinking with pentaerythritol yielded significant increases in the molecular weights of these polymers.
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 03/2003; 29(8):1157 - 1165. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • D M Arm, A F Tencer
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of osteogenic proteins for orthopedic applications has led to great interest in developing delivery systems for these substances. Standard release rate models are applicable in most biological settings, but orthopedic implants usually bear mechanical loads. To determine whether a release rate model for load bearing applications must consider mechanical stress, the effects of dynamic mechanical stress on the in vitro release kinetics of two model proteins, bovine albumin (BA) and trypsin inhibitor (TI), from a biodegradable film were evaluated. Biodegradable poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) cylindrical implants with embedded proteins were subjected to cyclic three point bending loading of 720 cycles/day at 0.4 Hz for 2 weeks. Protein release into solution, swelling and mass loss changes, molecular weight degradation, and the presence of microstructural stress cracks and pores in the polymer carrier were evaluated. Cumulative BA and TI releases with time were significantly higher when a cyclic bending load was applied and increased with the magnitude of the load. Mass loss was not significantly greater, nor was swelling or molecular weight change of the polymer carrier in this 2-week interval. Pores on the surface of the polymer in the highest stress region were elongated into cracks, compared with pores in the low-stress region of the same implant, which were roughly circular. This implies that the pores probably act as stress risers to initiate cracks, which then expose more surface area, increasing protein release.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 07/1997; 35(4):433-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of several osteogenic factors which affect bone growth and fracture healing. This study examined the potential of hydroxyapatite (HA) rods with interconnected pores of mean diameter 200 microns to be used as a matrix for the release of PDGF to enhance bone ingrowth into the implant. In the initial phase of the study the sustained release of PDGF from the HA rods was characterized in vitro for two different PDGF loadings, 10 and 100 micrograms per implant. The second phase of the study examined bone ingrowth in HA implants placed into the medullary canals of rabbit femora. The specimens were dumb-bell shaped, with a reduced central diameter so that bone growth across a gap could also be determined. Bone ingrowth into HA implants was compared with growth into HA implants loaded with 100 micrograms of PDGF. Pushout measurements were made of average shear strength across the bone-implant interface and backscatter scanning electron microscopy of thick sections was used to quantify the amount of bone ingrowth into the implant. Although greater interfacial shear strength and area of ingrowth were observed, especially across gap sites, in specimens loaded with PDGF, no difference was statistically significant.
    Biomaterials 05/1996; 17(7):703-9. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic osteomyelitis is one of the most serious complications of orthopedic open fracture treatment. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable implant coating with impregnated antibiotics as an adjunct to current therapy. We used a polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as the biodegradable carrier and gentamicin as the antibiotic. Our objectives were to establish elution characteristics of the antibiotic from the polymer, and determine if the coated orthopedic implants would inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. In the elution study, coated implants were incubated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C and sampled daily for gentamicin levels. The in vitro model consisted of test tubes containing Mueller-Hinton culture broth inoculated with 5 x 10(6) cfu of Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 degrees C. The implants were switched to a new set of inoculated tubes each day. Tubes were sampled for colony counting to determine bactericidal effects. Implant coatings consisted of 40 mg of gentamicin as a 20% mixture with PLGA. The elution curve showed an average level of 138 micrograms/mL over 15 days. This local concentration would be more than adequate to kill susceptible organisms. The in vitro study showed a significant reduction in bacterial growth in the test tubes containing coated implants. Control tubes averaged 2.5 x 10(8) cfu/mL of S.aureus over 24 days. Coated implant tubes averaged 0.9 cfu/mL. This was a reduction of greater than 99.999% (p < 0.0001). This study showed that a thin biodegradable implant coating can be developed with bactericidal activity against the organisms frequently associated with osteomyelitis in cases of open fractures.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 04/1996; 30(3):281-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of polymers, bisphenol A-based poly(phosphoesters), were evaluated as degradable biomaterials. Degradation was observed for the four polymers studied under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The rate of degradation was affected by polymer side-chain structure and correlated with the swelling behavior. The ethyl side-chain polymers absorbed more water than their phenyl counterparts. Among the sterilization methods, UV irradiation followed by antibiotic treatment was the most suitable, as steam autoclave and ethylene oxide treatments altered the properties of several of the poly (phosphoesters). Tissue response to the poly(phosphoesters) in rabbits was characterized by minor encapsulation and slight or no lymphocyte, giant cell, or macrophage activity. No evidence of edema or necrosis was found. The elastic moduli of these materials varied from 488 MPa for poly(bisphenol A-ethylphosphate) (BPA/EOP) to 627 MPa for the more rigid poly(bisphenol A-phenylphosphonate) (BPA/PP). The ultimate strength, modulus, and energy to failure of BPA/PP were lower than those of similarly compression molded high-molecular-weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA).
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 10/1991; 25(9):1151-67.

Publication Stats

173 Citations
11.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States