[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spallation reactions play an important role in many branches of physics. If the nuclear reaction induced by low energy neutrons as in nuclear power plants or research reactors can be based on cross section database, it is not the case for spallation reactions due to the energy range, from 100 MeV up to ~3 GeV, and to the candidate targets (all nuclei). Then these reactions have to be modeled. Developments of codes are linked to new experiment and this explains
why fifteen years ago a first benchmark has been launched, restricted to particle production, followed by a
second one on residues. Since then new data have been measured and computer tools are improved day after day, so a new benchmark has been organized, under the auspices of the IAEA, taken into account all types of results, particle and residue production, with a possibility to update the data (experimental and code calculation) via a web site. Results of the benchmark concerning both the analysis of the prediction capabilities of the seventeen model-participants and the first conclusions on the physics of spallation models are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spallation reactions play an important role in a wide domain of applications. In the simulation codes used in this field, the nuclear interaction cross-sections and characteristics are computed by spoliation models. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recently organised a benchmark of the spoliation models used or that could be used in the future into high-energy transport codes. The objectives were, first, to assess the prediction capabilities of the different spoliation models for the different mass and energy regions and the different exit channels and, second, to understand the reason for the success or deficiency of the models. Results of the benchmark concerning both the analysis of the prediction capabilities of the models and the first conclusions on the physics of spoliation models are presented.
Journal- Korean Physical Society 08/2011; 59(2):791-796. DOI:10.3938/jkps.59.791 · 0.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclide production cross sections measured at ITEP for the targets of nat-Cr,
56-Fe, nat-Ni, 93-Nb, 181-Ta, nat-W, nat-Pb, 209-Bi irradiated by protons with
energies from 40 to 2600 MeV were used to estimate the predictive accuracy of
several popular high-energy transport codes. A general agreement of the ITEP
data with the data obtained by other groups, including the numerous GSI data
measured by the inverse kinematics method was found. Simulations of the
measured data were performed with the MCNPX (Bertini and ISABEL options),
CEM03.02, INCL4.2+ABLA, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, and CASCADE.07 codes. Deviation
factors between the calculated and experimental cross sections have been
estimated for each target and for the whole energy range covered by our
measurements. Two-dimensional diagrams of deviation factor values were produced
for estimating the predictive power of every code for intermediate, not
measured masses of nuclei-targets and bombarding energies of protons. Further
improvements of all tested here codes are recommended. In addition, new
measurements at ITEP of nuclide yields from a 208-Pb target irradiated by 500
MeV protons are presented. A good agreement between these new data and the GSI
measurements obtained by the inverse kinematics method was found
Physical Review C 05/2011; DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.84.064612 · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cross sections for nuclide production in thin 93Nb and natNi targets irradiated by 0.04- to 2.6-GeV protons have been measured by direct γ spectrometry using two γ spectrometers with the resolutions of 1.8 and 1.7 keV in the 60Co 1332-keV γ line. As a result, 1112 yields of radioactive residual nuclei have been obtained. The 27Al(p, x)22Na reaction has been used as a monitor reaction. The experimental data have been compared with the MCNPX (BERTINI, ISABEL),
CEM03.02, INCL4.2, INCL4.5, PHITS, and CASCADE07 calculations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cross sections for nuclide production in thin 56Fe and natCr targets irradiated by 0.04–2.6-GeV protons are measured by direct γ spectrometry using two γ spectrometers with the resolutions of 1.8 and 1.7 keV for the 60Co 1332-keV γ line. As a result, 649 yields of radioactive residual product nuclei have been obtained. The 27Al(p, x)22Na reaction has been used as a monitor reaction. The experimental data are compared with the MCNPX (BERTINI, ISABEL), CEM03.02,
INCL4.2, INCL4.5, PHITS, and CASCADE07 calculations.