[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcomes data for the efficacy of interventions designed to decrease the time to initial target vancomycin troughs are sparse.
A vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) program was initiated to reduce the time to initial target troughs and to examine the impact on clinical outcomes.
Single-center, pre- and post-intervention observational study in a 250 bed teaching facility. Adult inpatients treated with physician-guided, vancomycin therapy (historical control, CTRL) were compared to high trough, pharmacist-guided vancomycin therapy (TDM). Nephrotoxicity analyses were conducted to the ensure safety of the TDM. Clinical outcome analysis was limited to patients with normal renal function and culture-confirmed gram positive infections and a pre-defined MRSA subset.
340 patients met initial inclusion criteria for the nephrotoxicity analysis (TDM, n = 173; CTRL, n = 167). Acute kidney injury occurrence was similar between the CTRL (n = 20) and TDM (n = 23) groups (p = 0.7). Further exclusions yielded 145 patients with gram positive infections for clinical outcomes evaluation (TDM, n = 66; CTRL, n = 75). The time to initial target trough was shorter in the TDM group (3 vs. 5 days, p < 0.001). Patients in the TDM group discharged from the hospital more rapidly, 7 vs. 14 days (Hazards Ratio (HR), 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.08-1.83; p = 0.01), reached clinical stability faster, 4 vs. 8 days (HR, 1.51; 95% CI 1.08-2.11; p = 0.02), and had shorter courses of vancomycin, 4 vs. 7 days (HR, 1.5; 95% CI 1.15-1.95; p = 0.003). In the MRSA infection subset (TDM, n = 36; CTRL, n = 35), patients in the TDM group discharged from the hospital more rapidly, 7 vs. 16 days (HR, 1.89; 95% CI 1.08-3.3; p = 0.03), reached clinical stability faster, 4 vs. 6 days (HR, 2.69; 95% CI 1.27-5.7; p = 0.01), and had shorter courses of vancomycin, 5 vs. 8 days (HR, 2.52; 95% CI 1.38-4.6; p = 0.003). Attaining initial target troughs in <5 days versus ≥5 days was associated with improved clinical outcomes. All cause in-hospital mortality, and vancomycin treatment failure occurred at comparable rates between groups.
Interventions designed to decrease the time to reach initial target vancomycin troughs can improve clinical outcomes in gram positive infections, and in particular MRSA infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 63-year-old woman who was admitted to the intensive care unit for altered mental status and hypotension 3 weeks after creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). She was found to have high-output heart failure and evidence of acute hepatic failure. High-output heart failure is a known complication of AVF creation, but hepatic failure after AVF has not been previously described. We present such a case.
Annals of Vascular Surgery 07/2012; 26(7):1012.e1-4. DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2012.01.017 · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An interesting case of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella Birkenhead following ingestion of raw venison sashimi is described. A 65-year-old man presented with diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. On exam he was hypotensive, tachycardic, with evidence of severe dehydration following ingestion of raw venison sashimi produced with game meat hunted on the Hawaiian island of Lana'i. He responded rapidly to vigorous volume resuscitation, and stool cultures later were positive for Salmonella Birkenhead. Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the most frequently identified cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Clinicians in the state of Hawai'i should be alert and aware of the potential for the local deer population to be an unusual source of foodborne illness, especially given the prevalence of consumption of raw foods in the local cuisine.
Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health 02/2012; 71(2):49-50.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two adult cases, one of secondary syphilis and one of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia, in which antibiotic desensitization therapy was utilized to assist treatment of active infection in the face of severe penicillin allergy. Clinical considerations are discussed that led to the decision to employ a formal desensitization procedure. Antibiotic desensitization protocols can facilitate optimal and safe antibiotic therapy in the appropriate clinical setting.