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ABSTRACT: To examine the changes of the mechanical properties of 7 different light-cured composite resins after thermal cycling and the correlations between these properties. Seven different light-cured composite resins, including 2 microfilled composites (A110:AH and ESTELITE :ET), 3 microhybrid composites (AELITE:AT, Z250:ZS, and CharmFil plus:CP), and 2 nanohybrid composites (Z350:ZH and Grandio:GD), were prepared into test specimens with a diameter of 12 mm and a thickness of 1.0 mm. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees celsius; for 24 h prior to 1 000 thermal cycles of 5 degrees celsius; for 15 s and 55 degrees celsius; for 15 s. The biaxial flexural strength (δ(f)) was tested using the ball-on-three-ball method at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (ISO4049). The fracture surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the remaining specimens underwent Knoop hardness test with a 50-g loading for 10 s. The highest and lowest Weibull modulus was observed in AH (18.752) and AT (5.290) group, respectively. The highest and lowest biaxial flexural strength was observed in ZS (158.2 MPa) and ET (54.0 MPa) groups, respectively. The δ(f) of the tested materials decreased in the order of microhybrid composite, nanohybrid composite, and microfiller composite, and the δ(f) showed no significant difference between the composites with a similar filler (P>0.05). The fracture number was positively correlated to the strength of the material. The Knoop hardness numbers (H) was the highest in GD group (110.81∓14.77 kg/mm(2)) and the lowest in AH group (42.81∓1.91 kg/mm(2)). SEM showed that the interface region of the matrix and the filler was vulnerable to crack formation. The nanohybrid composite resins better suit clinical applications than microhybrid composites. The applicability of Knoop hardness test in hardness measurement of the composite resins needs to be further demonstrated.Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 12/2011; 31(12):1957-62.