Amelia Rogers

Lancaster General Hospital, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (17)11.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about nursing care's impact on trauma outcomes. The Magnet Recognition Program recognizes hospitals for quality patient care and nursing excellence based on objective standards. We hypothesized that Magnet-designated trauma centers would have improved survival over their non-Magnet counterparts.
    The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 07/2014; 77(1):89-94. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately one in three older adults fall each year, resulting in a significant proportion of geriatric traumatic injuries. In a hospital with a focus on geriatric fall prevention, we sought to characterize this population to develop targeted interventions. As mild hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium <135meq/L, has been reported to be associated with falls, unsteadiness and attention deficits, we hypothesized that hyponatremia is associated with falls in our geriatric trauma population.
    Injury 06/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The checklist concept has received much attention as a result of its ability to improve patient care by minimizing complications. We hypothesized daily sign-out rounds using a checklist, by improving team communication and consistency of clinical care, could lead to expedited throughput for patients at a major trauma center. A retrospective study examined patients admitted to a mature trauma center. Two time periods, PRE (September 2008 to January 2009) and POST (September 2009 to January 2010), were selected to match for seasonal variation in admission diagnosis. An organ system-based checklist was used during daily sign-out for all admitted trauma patients in the POST period. We examined discharge status, complications and rates, and intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital length of stay for differences. There were similar numbers of patients (824 PRE vs 798 POST) admitted in these two cohorts. We found no statistical differences in the incidence of complications or mortality rate. We did discover statistically significant differences in the median ICU days (2 PRE vs 1 POST, P = 0.007) as well as median hospital length of stay (2 days, interquartile differences Q1 to Q3 PRE [1 to 5] and POST [1 to 4] P = 0.000). These trends remained valid even among the severely injured (Injury Severity Score 16 or greater) with a hospital length of stay of 5 (PRE) versus 3 days (POST; P = 0.021). A simple, organ system-based checklist can be successfully adopted for daily sign-out round on a busy, multiprovider trauma service. We were able to expedite trauma patient throughput in both ICU and overall hospital stays with a trend toward decreasing mortality. This improved throughput may potentially translate into a cost saving for the hospital.
    The American surgeon 05/2014; 80(5):434-440. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Warfarin therapy increases the incidence intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), especially in the geriatric population. Timely reversal of international normalized ratio (INR) is integral in the management of these patients for whom fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with vitamin K is the standard of treatment. We hypothesized that implementing a protocol that used prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) would reverse INR values more swiftly and decrease the amount of FFP administered. In November 2011, a protocol was implemented for administering PCC to the geriatric population on warfarin admitted for life-threatening bleeds. These patients received 25 IU/kg ideal body weight of a three-factor PCC (Profilnine SD) if their INR was over 1.5 or greater. FFP was given if follow-up INR revealed an INR of 1.5 or greater. Retrospectively the data from 29 patients who received PCC were compared with a historical control group of 34 patients. Protocol use resulted in a significantly faster INR reversal (PCC: 151.6 ± 84.3 minutes vs control: 485.0 ± 321 minutes; P < 0.001), time to achieve an INR less than 1.5 (PCC: 484 ± 242 minutes vs control: 971 ± 1208 minutes; P = 0.036), and less FFP administered (PCC: 1.3 ± 1.0 vs control:3.3 ± 1.5; P < 0.001). PCC patients had a decreased incidence of progression of their ICH (PCC: 17.2% vs control: 44.2%; P = 0.031). Rapid reversal of coagulopathy in geriatric patients on warfarin is vital to limit the extent of ICH. PCC allows a much more rapid reversal than standard treatment with only FFP and vitamin K. Adopting such a protocol is associated not only with a more rapid reversal and less FFP use, but also less patients went on to extend their head bleeds.
    The American surgeon 04/2014; 80(4):372-376. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The checklist concept has received much attention as a result of its ability to improve patient care by minimizing complications. We hypothesized daily sign-out rounds using a checklist, by improving team communication and consistency of clinical care, could lead to expedited throughput for patients at a major trauma center. A retrospective study examined patients admitted to a mature trauma center. Two time periods, PRE (September 2008 to January 2009) and POST (September 2009 to January 2010), were selected to match for seasonal variation in admission diagnosis. An organ system-based checklist was used during daily sign-out for all admitted trauma patients in the POST period. We examined discharge status, complications and rates, and intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital length of stay for differences. There were similar numbers of patients (824 PRE vs 798 POST) admitted in these two cohorts. We found no statistical differences in the incidence of complications or mortality rate. We did discover statistically significant differences in the median ICU days (2 PRE vs 1 POST, P = 0.007) as well as median hospital length of stay (2 days, interquartile differences Q1 to Q3 PRE [1 to 5] and POST [1 to 4] P = 0.000). These trends remained valid even among the severely injured (Injury Severity Score 16 or greater) with a hospital length of stay of 5 (PRE) versus 3 days (POST; P = 0.021). A simple, organ system-based checklist can be successfully adopted for daily sign-out round on a busy, multiprovider trauma service. We were able to expedite trauma patient throughput in both ICU and overall hospital stays with a trend toward decreasing mortality. This improved throughput may potentially translate into a cost saving for the hospital.
    The American surgeon 01/2014; 80(5). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As we enter the brave new world of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, it is imperative that trauma centers provide not only excellent but also cost-effective trauma care. To that end, we sought to determine those factors that contribute significantly to barrier days (BDs), when a patient is medically cleared for discharge but unable to leave the hospital. We hypothesized that there would be significant demographic and payor factors associated with BDs. All trauma admissions to a Level II trauma center discharged alive from 2010 to 2012 were queried from the trauma registry. BDs were identified and recorded at daily sign-out. Patients with a hospital length of stay of 24 hours or less or transferred to another hospital were excluded. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyze which factors were significant (p ≤ 0.05) for BDs. Significant variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 3,056 patients were included in the study, 105 (3.44%) of whom had at least one BD. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients awaiting nursing home placement and rehabilitation placement were at 6.39 and 2.79 times higher odds of having significant barriers to discharge, respectively, compared with patients who were discharged home. The multivariate model also showed that Medicaid coverage, one or more comorbidities, Injury Severity Score of 9 or greater, and one or more ventilation days had a significant correlation with the incidence of BDs. This study suggests that discharge destination is a significant factor associated with BDs. Understanding what type of patient is prone to develop barriers to discharge will allow case managers and social workers to intervene with discharge planning early in that patient's hospital course to secure placement and possibly reduce health care costs and improve functional outcome. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):191-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the Leap Frog intensivist staffing model has been shown to improve outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU), to date, no one has examined the effect of an intensivist model in a dedicated trauma ICU. With stricter adherence to evidence-based protocols and 24-hour availability, we hypothesized that a mature intensivist model in a trauma ICU would decrease mortality. Level II trauma center trauma ICU admissions 2006 to 2011. The ICU care provided by 6 trauma intensivists. Two periods were compared: early (2006-2008) and mature (2009-2011). Patients matched on age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), preexisting conditions, and so on in a univariate analysis, with significant variables placed in a logistic regression model, with mortality as the outcome. A total of 3527 patients (2999 excluding do not resuscitate status) were reviewed. Age ≥65 (odds ratio [OR] 2.38, P < .001), ISS ≥17 (OR 3.3, P < .001), coagulopathy (OR 1.64, P = .004), and anemia (OR 1.73, P = .02) were independent predictors of mortality. Multivariate logistic model encompassing these factors found no statistically significant differences in mortality across the 6-year period. The ICU efficiency showed significant improvements in terms of ventilator days (30.1% EARLY vs 24.4% MATURE; P < .001), decreases in mean consultant use per patient (0.55 ± 0.85 EARLY vs 0.40 ± 0.74 MATURE; P < .001), and increase in number of bedside procedures per patient (0.09 ± 0.48 EARLY vs 0.40 ± 0.74 MATURE; P < .001 CONCLUSIONS: Our mature intensivists staffing model shows improvement in ICU throughput (ventilator days, ICU days, decreased consultant use, and increased bedside procedures) but no survival benefit. Further improvements in overall trauma mortality may lie in the resuscitative and operative phase of patient care.
    Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Amish culture is known for simple living, reluctance to use modern technology, and a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships. We hypothesized that the strong work ethic and social structure of the Amish would lead to improved outcome following trauma. Trauma registry was queried for all patients from years 2000 to 2010. Patients separated into Amish versus non-Amish. Groups were compared using univariate logistic regression, with the first outcome variable being mortality and the second being hospital length of stay (LOS) greater than 5 days. Factors significant on univariate analysis were included in the multivariate models for the same dependent variables. From 2000 to 2010, our Level II trauma center admitted 18,337 trauma patients, 802 (4.4%) of whom were Amish. When adjusted for age of 65 years or older, Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or greater, and the occurrence of at least one complication, the Amish are at 96% lower odds for having an overall hospital LOS greater than 5 days (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.66; p < 0.001). The Amish have a 72% lower odds of dying following trauma, when controlling for age of 65 years or older, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 or less, ISS of 16 or greater, and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) of 7 or less (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.96; p = 0.036). The hospital LOS model had a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77, and the mortality model had a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88. When adjusted for injury severity, age, and physiology, the Amish have a 72% lower odds of dying following trauma than their non-Amish counterparts. When adjusted for injury severity, age, physiology, and complications, the Amish have a 96% lower odds of having an extended hospital LOS than their non-Amish counterparts. Understanding the unique social structure of the Amish population may allow scarce social services' resources to be shifted to more underserved areas. Epidemiologic, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 11/2013; 75(5):916-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 identifies "patient experience of care" as one of five domains of excellent care. We hypothesized that there are specific demographic factors associated with higher or lower physician satisfaction (PS) scores in trauma patients. Press-Ganey PS scores for September 2004 to December 2010 were compared with trauma variables and the association of a mean PS greater than or equal to 75 (high score) or less than or equal to 50 (low score). Those variables that proved significant on univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Significance was at p < 0.05. There were 12,196 admissions, of whom 1,631 (13.4%) returned patient satisfaction survey. A total of 1,174 patients (75.5%) returned a high PS (≥75), and 126 patients (8.1%) returned a low PS (≤50). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, 65 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), having had a surgical procedure (OR, 1.6), and having a positive impression of the hospital care (OR, 7.0) proved significant for a high PS. Those patients who scored a low PS were significantly more likely to be younger (18-29 years: OR, 2.4; 30-64 years: OR, 1.8), to have not had surgery (OR, 2.2), had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or lower (OR, 2.6), had a complication of care (OR, 4.4), and rated the hospital care as poor (OR, 9.2). A trauma patient who is satisfied with his or her physician care is one who is 65 years or older, requires surgery, and is predominantly satisfied with other aspects of their hospital care. Unsatisfied patients are younger, are nonoperative, had lower ISS, had a complication of care, and rated their hospital care as poor. Understanding the specific characteristics of Press-Ganey results for trauma patients will allow trauma surgeons and their hospital partners to develop strategies to improve patients' satisfaction with their trauma surgeon's care. Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 07/2013; 75(1):110-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been the approach to trauma outcome prediction during the past 20 years and has been adopted by many commercial registries. Unfortunately, its survival predictions are based upon coefficients that were derived from a data set collected in the 1980s and updated only once using a data set collected in the early 1990s. We hypothesized that the improvements in trauma care during the past 20 years would lead to improved survival in a large database, thus making the TRISS biased. The TRISSs from the Pennsylvania statewide trauma registry (Collector, Digital Innovations) for the years 1990 to 2010. Observed-to-expected mortality ratios for each year of the study were calculated by taking the ratio of actual deaths (observed deaths, O) to the summation of the probability of mortality predicted by the TRISS taken over all patients (expected deaths, E). For reference, O/E ratio should approach 1 if the TRISS is well calibrated (i.e., has predictive accuracy). There were 408,489 patients with complete data sufficient to calculate the TRISSs. There was a significant trend toward improved outcome (i.e., decreasing O/E ratio; nonparametric test of trend, p < 0.001) over time in both the total population and the blunt trauma subpopulation. In the penetrating trauma population, there was a trend toward improved outcome (decreasing O/E ratio), but it did not quite reach significance (nonparametric test of trend p = 0.073). There is a steady trend toward improved O/E survival in the Pennsylvania database with each passing year, suggesting that the TRISS is drifting out of calibration. It is likely that improvements in care account for these changes. For the TRISS to remain an accurate outcome prediction model, new coefficients would need to be calculated periodically to keep up with trends in trauma care. This requirement for occasional updating is likely to be a requirement of any trauma prediction model, but because many other deficiencies in the TRISS have been reported, we think that rather than updating the TRISS, it would be more productive to replace the TRISS with a modern statistical model.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 08/2012; 73(2):326-31; discussion 331.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the relative "weight" of risk factors known to be associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients with trauma based on injuries and comorbidities. A retrospective review of 16,608 consecutive admissions to a trauma center was performed. Patients were separated into those who developed VTE (n = 141) versus those who did not (16,467). Univariate analysis was performed for each risk factor reported in the trauma literature. Risk factors that were shown to be significant (p < 0.05) by univariate analysis underwent multivariate analysis to develop odds ratios for VTE. The Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) was derived from the multivariate coefficients. The resulting TESS was compared with a data set from the National Trauma Data Bank (2002-2006) to determine its ability to predict VTE. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that age, Injury Severity Score, obesity, ventilator use for more than 3 days, and lower-extremity trauma were significant predictors of VTE in our patient population. The TESS was from 0 to 14, with the best prediction for those patients with a score of more than 6 (sensitivity, 81.6%; specificity, 84%). Overall, the model had excellent discrimination in predicting VTE with a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89. The VTE rates for TESS in the National Trauma Data Bank data set were similar for all integers except for 3 and 4, in which the VTE rates were significantly higher (3, 0.2% vs. 0.6%; 4, 0.4% vs. 1.0%). The TESS provides an objective measure of classifying VTE risk for patients with trauma. The TESS could allow informed decision making regarding prophylaxis strategies in patients with trauma.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 08/2012; 73(2):511-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Injured geriatric patients pose unique challenges to the trauma team because of their abnormal responses to shock and injury. We have developed the high-risk geriatric protocol (GP) that seeks to identify high-risk geriatric patients. We hypothesized that a high-risk GP would improve outcome in this select group of patients. Patients from 2000 to 2010 were included. Patients 65 years or older who met high-risk GP based on comorbidities and/or physiologic parameters were compared with those patients who had not received GP before its implementation as well as other non-GP patients. This protocol includes a geriatric consultation, as well as a lactate levels, arterial blood gas levels, and echo test to assess for occult shock. Age, trauma activation, preexisting conditions, Injury Severity Score, Revised Trauma Score, and mortality were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors predictive of mortality. A total of 3,902 patients were evaluated. Patients receiving GP were less likely to die (odds ratio, 0.63 [0.39-0.99], p = 0.046). For all patients, there was a dramatic increase in mortality for those patients older than 75 years. The GP, adjusted for other covariates, significantly reduced mortality in our patient population. Thus, this study confirms the overall effectiveness of our GP, which is hallmarked by prompt identification of those patients with occult shock and a multidisciplinary care of the aged population.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 08/2012; 73(2):435-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Patient satisfaction surveys are increasingly being used as a measure of physician performance in a hospital setting. We sought to determine what role the clinical condition the physician is treating has on overall patient satisfaction scores. Patient satisfaction scores were calculated for elective and emergent general surgery and trauma patients for eight surgeons taking care of all three types of patients. Both physician satisfaction (PP) and hospital satisfaction (GP) scores were calculated. Mean scores (± standard deviation) between groups were compared with P < 0.05 significance. Of 1521 trauma patients and 3779 general surgery patients, there was 14.8 and 15.1 per cent response rate, respectively, to the survey. Trauma patients had a significantly lower PP than general surgery patients (81.0 ± 19.4 vs 85.7 ± 16.4; P < 0.001). However, the GP between trauma and general surgery was not significant (84.0 ± 13 vs 84.0 ± 12.3; nonsignificant) When general surgery patients were divided into emergent versus elective, the PP was significantly higher for elective than emergent (87.9 ± 14.6 vs 82.7 ± 18; P < 0.001). A patient's underlying clinical condition may influence response to patient satisfaction surveys. Further research needs to be performed before patient satisfaction surveys can be adopted as a overall measure of physician competency.
    The American surgeon 07/2012; 78(7):731-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The geriatric trauma patient poses unique challenges to the trauma surgeon due to occult injuries and occult hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that those elderly patients with significant injuries, who were not initially evaluated via trauma activation, would suffer worse outcomes. All cases of elderly (age ≥ 65) admitted to the trauma service from the years 2000 to 2010 were included. Our trauma activation system encompasses anatomic, physiologic, and mechanism of injury criteria. We defined patients as undertriaged (UT) if they had an ISS > 15 and did not undergo a trauma team activation, but had a regular workup by an emergency department physician and trauma team consultation. Factors that contributed to being UT in the emergency department were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 4534 elderly patients constitute this analysis, of which 15.1 per cent were UT. The UT patients were more likely to die, when adjusted for Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma score, the occurrence of ≥1 complication, and whether the patient was on Coumadin. UT has a high risk of death in elderly patients. Trauma triage guidelines need to be better tailored to identify the high-risk geriatric trauma patient.
    The American surgeon 06/2012; 78(6):711-5. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temporary inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are uniquely suited for trauma patients in whom the high risk of venous thromboembolism is transient. Currently, few "retrievable filters" are actually retrieved, with most published series documenting a retrieval rate between 20% and 50%. We sought to determine whether we could achieve a higher rate of retrieval with an improved process of care. All permanent and temporary filters were entered prospectively into a dedicated filter registry. Within 60 days of filter placement, all temporary filter patients were contacted by a trauma case manager to evaluate ongoing venous thromboembolism risk. Low-risk patients were then evaluated by radiology for removal of the IVCF. If appropriate, removal of the IVCF was scheduled. Initial contacts with patients were made by telephone. If unsuccessful with phone contact, family members, rehabilitation facility, and social work were all contacted to obtain the most recent phone number and address. A follow-up letter was sent to the patient with follow-up visit instructions. Finally, if prior contact measures did not work, a certified letter was sent to the last known address. Between 2006 and 2009, of 7,949 trauma admissions, 420 (5.2%) met indications for filter placement. Of those, 160 were available for removal and 94 were successfully removed (59%). A retrieval rate of 59% can be achieved with an explicit process of care emphasizing disciplined follow-up. III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 02/2012; 72(2):381-4.
  • The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1922. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) has determined that a 5 % pre-hospital undertriage [UT; defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15 and not sent to a trauma center] is an acceptable rate for pre-hospital transfer to a non-trauma center. We sought to determine if this level of undertriage is acceptable within a mature Level II trauma center as a measure of the adequacy of its trauma activation system. Methods Our trauma activation system encompasses anatomic, physiologic, and mechanism of injury criteria. We defined UT as ISS > 15 and no trauma activation. All UT patients during the period 2000–2010 were compared to properly triaged patients (CT). The variables examined were mortality, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, complications, Coumadin use, and age >64 years. Results There were 18,324 patients admitted, with 1,156 (6.3 %) UT. UT is associated with an increase in mortality [odds ratio (OR) 3.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.4–3.8; p < 0.001), longer ED LOS (OR 54.5; 95 % CI 45.5–63.5; p < 0.001), and longer hospital LOS (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.4–2.1; p < 0.001). In addition, UT patients had a two-fold increase in complications (OR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.6–2.5; p < 0.001). When controlling for age ≥65 years, Revised Trauma Score (RTS) > 7.0, and one or more co-morbidities, UT patients had 2.18 times higher odds of mortality than their CT counterparts (OR 2.18; 95 % CI 1.57–3.01; p < 0.001). Patients on pre-hospital Coumadin (OR 3.61; 95 % CI 3.04–4.30; p < 0.001) and age >64 years (OR 4.93; 95 % CI 4.36–5.58; p < 0.001) were significant predictors of being undertriaged. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Conclusions Standard trauma activation criteria may not be adequate to identify the at-risk severely injured trauma patient. Further refinement of in-house trauma triage protocols is necessary if trauma centers are to improve outcomes following trauma.
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery · 0.26 Impact Factor