[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the longitudinal effects of comorbid anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BP).
As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study, 413 youth, who were 7 through 17 years or age and who met criteria for DSM-IV BP-I (n = 244), BP-II (n = 28), and operationally defined bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) (n = 141) were included. Subjects were followed on average 5 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. Effects of anxiety on the time to mood recovery and recurrence and percentage of time with syndromal and subsyndromal mood symptomatology during the follow-up period were analyzed.
At intake and during the follow-up, 62% of youth with BP met criteria for at least 1 anxiety disorder. About 50% of the BP youth with anxiety had ≥2 anxiety disorders. Compared to BP youth without anxiety, those with anxiety had significantly more depressive recurrences and significantly longer median time to recovery. The effects of anxiety on recovery disappeared when the severity of depression at intake was taken into account. After adjusting for confounding factors, BP youth with anxiety, particularly those with ≥2 anxiety disorders, spent significantly less follow-up time asymptomatic and more time with syndromal mixed/cycling and subsyndromal depressive symptomatology compared to those without anxiety.
Anxiety disorders are common and adversely affect the course of BP in youth, as characterized by more mood recurrences, longer time to recovery, less time euthymic, and more time in mixed/cycling and depressive episodes. Prompt recognition and the development of treatments for BP youth with anxiety are warranted.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 01/2014; 53(1):72-81. · 4.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the prospective relationship between age of onset of bipolar disorder and the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, new onset of psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning among adults with bipolar disorder.
As part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 1600 adults who met lifetime Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for bipolar disorder-I (n = 1172) and bipolar disorder-II (n = 428) were included. Individuals were evaluated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV version for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and data were analyzed from Waves 1 and 2, approximately 3 years apart. Individuals with bipolar disorder were divided into three age at onset groups: childhood (<13 years old, n = 115), adolescence (13-18 years old, n = 396), and adulthood (>19 year old, n = 1017).
After adjusting for confounding factors, adults with childhood-onset bipolar disorder were more likely to see a counselor, have been hospitalized, and have received emergency room treatment for depression compared with those with adulthood-onset bipolar disorder. By contrast, there were no differences in the severity of mania or hypomania, new onset of comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning by age of bipolar disorder onset.
Childhood-onset bipolar disorder is prospectively associated with seeking treatment for depression, an important proxy for depressive severity. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine whether prompt identification, accurate diagnosis, and early intervention can serve to mitigate the burden of childhood onset on the long-term depressive burden of bipolar disorder.
The Journal of pediatrics 07/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) and nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We aimed to examine, for the first time in a national and representative sample, the magnitude and direction of the temporal relationship between BD and ND; and to compare, among individuals with lifetime ND and BD, the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded the onset of BD (ND-prior) with those whose onset of ND followed the onset of BD (BD-prior). The sample included individuals with lifetime BD type I or ND (n = 7958) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n = 43093). Survival analyses and logistic regression models were computed to study the temporal association between ND and BD, and to compare ND-prior (n = 135) and BD-prior (n = 386) individuals. We found that ND predicted the onset of BD and BD also predicted the onset of ND. Furthermore, the risk of developing one disorder following the other one was greatest early in the course of illness. Most individuals with lifetime ND and BD were BD-prior (72.6%). BD-prior individuals had an earlier onset of BD and a higher number of manic episodes. By contrast, ND-prior individuals had an earlier onset of both daily smoking and ND, and an increased prevalence of alcohol use disorder. In conclusion, ND and BD predict the development of each other. The phenomenology and course of ND and BD varied significantly depending on which disorder had earlier onset.
Journal of psychiatric research 04/2013; · 3.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence and correlates of comorbid anxiety disorders among individuals with bipolar disorders (BP) and their association with prospectively ascertained comorbidities, treatment, and psychosocial functioning.
As part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 1600 adults who met lifetime DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n = 1172) and BP-II (n = 428) were included. Individuals were evaluated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DMS-IV Version and data was analyzed from Waves 1 and 2, approximately 3 years apart.
Sixty percent of individuals with BP had at least one lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder. Individuals with BP and anxiety disorders shared lifetime risk factors for major depressive disorder and had prospectively more depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and more treatment seeking than those without anxiety. During the follow-up, higher incidence of panic disorder, drug use disorders, and lower psychosocial functioning were found in individuals with BP with versus without anxiety disorders.
Anxiety disorders are prospectively associated with elevated BP severity and BP-related mental health service use. Early identification and treatment of anxiety disorders are warranted to improve the course and outcome of individuals with BP.
Journal of psychiatric research 04/2012; 46(7):865-72. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in youth with bipolar disorder, but, to our knowledge, no studies examined the course of anxiety disorders in youth and adults with bipolar disorder.
As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study, 413 youth, ages 7 to 17 years who met criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder (n = 244), bipolar II disorder (n = 28), and operationally defined bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (n = 141) were recruited primarily from outpatient clinics. Subjects were followed on average for 5 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. We examined factors associated with the persistence (> 50% of the follow-up time) and onset of new anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar disorder.
Of the 170 youth who had anxiety at intake, 80.6% had an anxiety disorder at any time during the follow-up. Most of the anxiety disorders during the follow-up were of the same type as those present at intake. About 50% of the youth had persistent anxiety, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Persistence was associated with multiple anxiety disorders, less follow-up time in euthymia, less conduct disorder, and less treatment with antimanic and antidepressant medications (all P values ≤ .05). Twenty-five percent of the sample who did not have an anxiety disorder at intake developed new anxiety disorders during follow-up, most commonly GAD. The onset of new anxiety disorders was significantly associated with being female, lower socioeconomic status, presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder, and more follow-up time with manic or hypomanic symptoms (all P values ≤ .05)
Anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar disorder tend to persist, and new-onset anxiety disorders developed in a substantial proportion of the sample. Early identification of factors associated with the persistence and onset of new anxiety disorders may enable the development of strategies for treatment and prevention.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2012; 73(1):87-94. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors' objective was to examine the presence of Axis I and II psychiatric disorders among adult males and females with a history in childhood and/or adolescence of conduct disorder (CD). Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. Face-to-face interviews of more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older were conducted during 2004-2005 using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity, CD was associated with all Axis I and II disorders, particularly substance use disorders (SUD), bipolar disorder, and histrionic personality disorders. After adjusting for gender differences in the general population, men had significantly greater odds of social anxiety disorder and paranoid personality disorder, whereas women were more likely to have SUD. Furthermore, there was dose-response relationship between number of CD symptoms and risk for most psychiatric disorders. From a clinical standpoint, knowledge of the gender differences in associations of CD with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood may be informative of developmental pathways of the disorder, and of possible gender-specific risk factors. Early recognition and treatment of CD may help prevent the development of adult-onset disorders.
Journal of psychiatric research 12/2011; 46(3):323-30. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in youth with bipolar disorder. We aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of comorbid anxiety disorders among youth with bipolar disorder.
As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study, 446 youth, ages 7 to 17 years, who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (n = 260) or bipolar II disorder (n = 32) or met operationalized criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (n = 154) were included. Subjects were evaluated for current and lifetime Axis I psychiatric disorders at intake using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime version, and standardized instruments were used to assess functioning and family history.
Forty-four percent (n = 194) of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for at least 1 lifetime anxiety disorder, most commonly separation anxiety (24%) and generalized anxiety disorders (16%). Nearly 20% met criteria for 2 or more anxiety disorders. Overall, anxiety disorders predated the onset of bipolar disorder. Subjects with bipolar II disorder were more likely than subjects with bipolar I disorder or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified to have a comorbid anxiety disorder. After adjusting for confounding factors, youth with bipolar disorder with anxiety were more likely to have bipolar II disorder; longer duration of mood symptoms; more severe ratings of depression; and family history of depression, hopelessness, and somatic complaints during their worst lifetime depressive episode than those without anxiety.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in youth with bipolar disorder, and they most often predate bipolar disorder onset. Bipolar II disorder, a family history of depression, and more severe lifetime depressive episodes distinguish youth with bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders from those without. Careful consideration should be given to the assessment of comorbid anxiety in youth with bipolar disorder.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2010; 71(10):1344-50. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric bipolar disorder (BPD) significantly affects the normal emotional, cognitive, and social development. The course of children and adolescents with BPD is manifested by frequent changes in symptoms polarity showing a dimensional continuum of bipolar symptoms severity from subsyndromal to mood syndromes meeting full DSM-IV criteria. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar is of utmost importance.
Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 05/2009; 18(2):273-89, vii. · 2.88 Impact Factor