[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Supplementing women with antioxidants during pregnancy may reduce oxidative stress and thereby prevent or delay the onset pre-eclampsia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing vitamin C in pregnancy on the incidence of pre-eclampsia, at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
This was a (parallel, balanced randomization, 1:1) placebo randomized controlled trial conducted at Mulago hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Participants included in this study were pregnant women aged 15-42 years, who lived 15 km or less from the hospital with gestational ages between 12-22 weeks. The women were randomized to take 1000mg of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) or a placebo daily until they delivered. The primary outcome was pre-eclamsia. Secondary outcomes were: severe pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery, low birth weight and still birth delivery. Participants were 932 pregnant women randomized into one of the two treatment arms in a ratio of 1:1. The participants, the care providers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to the study allocation.
Of the 932 women recruited; 466 were randomized to the vitamin and 466 to the placebo group. Recruitment of participants was from November 2011 to June 2012 and follow up was up to January 2013. Outcome data was available 415 women in the vitamin group and 418 women in the placebo group.
There were no differences in vitamin and placebo groups in the incidence of pre-eclampsia (3.1% versus 4.1%; RR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.37-1.56), severe pre-eclampsia (1.2% versus 1.0%; RR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.34-4.65), gestational hypertension(7.7% versus 11.5%; RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43-1.03), preterm delivery (11.3% versus 12.2%; RR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.63-1.34), low birth weight (11.1% versus 10.3%; RR 1.07; 95% CI: 0.72-1.59) and still birth delivery (4.6% versus 4.5%; RR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.54-1.87).
Supplementation with vitamin C did not reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia nor did it reduce the adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. We do not recommend the use of vitamin C in pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia.
This study was registered at the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, PACTR201210000418271 on 25th October 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES WERE: preterm delivery (OR 5.97, 95% CI: 2.97-12.7) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR 5.17, 95% CI: 2.36-11.3).
Predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia were preterm delivery and severe pre-eclampsia. Health workers need to identify women at risk, offer them counseling and, refer them if necessary to a hospital where they can be managed successfully. This may in turn reduce the neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with pre-eclampsia.
Pan African Medical Journal 01/2014; 17(Suppl 1):7. DOI:10.11694/pamj.supp.2014.17.1.3014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya Hospital.
This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted from March - November 2008. An interdisciplinary hospital team conducted weekly perinatal death reviews. Each case was summarized and discussed, identifying gaps and cause of death. Local solutions were implemented according to the gaps identified from the audit process.
Of the 350 perinatal deaths which occurred, 120 perinatal deaths were audited. 34.2% were macerated still births, 31.7% fresh still births and 34.2% early neonatal deaths. Avoidable factors included: poor neonatal resuscitation skills, incorrect use of the partographs and delay in performing caesarean sections. Activities implemented included: three skills sessions of neonatal resuscitation, introduction of Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for babies with respiratory distress, updates on use of partographs. Perinatal mortality rate was 47.9 deaths per 1000 total births in 2008 after introduction of the audits compared to 52.8 per 1,000 total births in 2007.
Conducting routine perinatal audits is feasible and contributes to reduction of facility perinatal mortality rate.
African health sciences 12/2012; 12(4):435-42. DOI:10.4314/ahs.v12i4.6 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To compare maternal morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. Methods. Major maternal morbidity (severe febrile illness, illnesses requiring hospital admissions, surgical revisions, or illnesses resulting in death) was measured prospectively in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women followed from 36 weeks of pregnancy to 6 weeks after delivery. Odds ratios of major morbidity and associated factors were examined using logistic regression.
Results. Major morbidity was observed in 46/129 (36%) and 104/390 (27%) of the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively, who remained in followup. In the multivariable analysis, major morbidity was independently associated with HIV infection, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7 (1.1 to 2.7), nulliparity (AOR 2.0 (1.3 to 3.0)), and lack of, or minimal, formal education (AOR 2.1 (1.1 to 3.8)). Conclusions. HIV was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of major maternal morbidity in these Ugandan mothers.
Journal of pregnancy 01/2012; 2012:508657. DOI:10.1155/2012/508657
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Pre-eclampsia contributes significantly to maternal, foetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for pre-eclampsia have not been well documented in Uganda. In this paper, we describe the risk factors for pre-eclampsia in women attending antenatal clinics at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods This casecontrol study was conducted from 1st May 2008 to 1st May 2009. 207 women with pre-eclampsia were the cases, and 352 women with normal pregnancy were the controls. The women were 15-39 years old, and their gestational ages were 20 weeks or more. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic characteristics, past medical history and, their past and present obstetric performances. Results The risk factors were low plasma vitamin C (OR 3.19, 95% CI: 1.54-6.61), low education level (OR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.12-2.48), chronic hypertension (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.12-4.66), family history of hypertension (OR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.53-3.31) and primiparity (OR 2.76, 95% CI: 1.84-4.15) and para≥5 (3.71, 95% CI:1.84-7.45). Conclusion The risk factors identified are similar to what has been found elsewhere. Health workers need to identify women at risk of pre-eclampsia and manage them appropriately so as to prevent the maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2011; 17(4):480-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02926.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin C alone or in combination with vitamin E has been proposed to prevent pre-eclampsia. In this study, we assayed the plasma vitamin C in women of reproductive age in Kampala and assessed its association with pre-eclampsia.
Participants in this study were 215 women with pre-eclampsia, 400 women with normal pregnancy attending antenatal clinic and 200 non-pregnant women attending family planning clinic at Mulago Hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from 1st May 2008 to 1st May 2009. Plasma vitamin C was assayed using the acid phosphotungstate method; differences in the means of plasma vitamin C were determined by anova.
Mean plasma vitamin C levels were 1.72 (SD 0.68)×10(3)μg/l in women with pre-eclampsia, 1.89 (SD 0.73)×10(3)μg/l in women with normal pregnancy and 2.64 (SD 0.97)×10(3)μg/l in non-pregnant women. Plasma vitamin C was lower in women with pre-eclampsia than in women with normal pregnancy (P=0.005) and non-pregnant women (P<0.001).
Health workers need to advise women of reproductive age on foods that are rich in vitamin C, as this may improve the vitamin status and possibly reduce the occurrence of pre-eclampsia.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2011; 17(2):191-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02907.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and vitamin C may prevent pre-eclampsia.
To determine the association between plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
This case-control study was conducted at Mulago Hospital from 1(st) May 2008 to 1(st) May 2009; 207 women were the cases and 352 women were the controls. Plasma vitamin C was assayed in the women using a colorimetric method. An independent t test was used to find the difference in the means of plasma vitamin C and logistic regression was used to find the association between plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia.
The mean plasma vitamin C was 1.7(SD=0.7) × 10(3) µg/L in women with pre-eclampsia and 1.9(SD=0.7) × 10(3) µg/L in women with normal pregnancy (P=0.005). Women with low plasma vitamin C were at an increased risk of pre-eclampsia (OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.56-5.44).
There was a strong association between low plasma vitamin C, and pre-eclampsia in women attending antenatal clinics at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Health workers need to advise women at risk in the antenatal period about diet, especially foods which are rich in vitamin C to probably reduce pre-eclampsia.
African health sciences 12/2011; 11(4):566-72. DOI:10.4314/ahs.v11i4. · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: East Africa has experienced a rapid expansion in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected patients. Regionally representative socio-demographic, laboratory and clinical characteristics of patients accessing ART over time and across sites have not been well described.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of characteristics of HIV-infected adults initiating ART between 2002 and 2009 in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania and in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Consortium. Characteristics associated with advanced disease (defined as either a CD4 cell count level of less than 50 cells/mm3 or a WHO Stage 4 condition) at the time of ART initiation and use of stavudine (D4T) or nevirapine (NVP) were identified using a log-link Poisson model with robust standard errors.
Among 48,658 patients (69% from Kenya, 22% from Uganda and 9% from Tanzania) accessing ART at 30 clinic sites, the median age at the time of ART initiation was 37 years (IQR: 31-43) and 65% were women. Pre-therapy CD4 counts rose from 87 cells/mm3 (IQR: 26-161) in 2002-03 to 154 cells/mm3 (IQR: 71-233) in 2008-09 (p<0.001). Accessing ART at advanced disease peaked at 35% in 2005-06 and fell to 27% in 2008-09. D4T use in the initial regimen fell from a peak of 88% in 2004-05 to 59% in 2008-09, and a greater extent of decline was observed in Uganda than in Kenya and Tanzania. Self-pay for ART peaked at 18% in 2003, but fell to less than 1% by 2005. In multivariable analyses, accessing ART at advanced immunosuppression was associated with male sex, women without a history of treatment for prevention of mother to child transmission (both as compared with women with such a history) and younger age after adjusting for year of ART initiation and country of residence. Receipt of D4T in the initial regimen was associated with female sex, earlier year of ART initiation, higher WHO stage, and lower CD4 levels at ART initiation and the absence of co-prevalent tuberculosis.
Public health ART services in east Africa have improved over time, but the fraction of patients accessing ART with advanced immunosuppression is still high, men consistently access ART with more advanced disease, and D4T continues to be common in most settings. Strategies to facilitate access to ART, overcome barriers among men and reduce D4T use are needed.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2011; 14(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-14-46 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for a maximum of 6 months, compared with 12.1% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Among the women who were not breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=108), 82.5% of the HIV-infected women had stopped breastfeeding within 3 months, compared with 23.5% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Only 2.1% of HIV-infected women seen up to 14 weeks postnatally practised mixed feeding, compared with 23.6% of HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). After 6 months, however, 30% of the HIV-infected women and 55% of the HIV-uninfected mothers were using mixed feeding, with no significant differences. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV should re-enforce counseling activities to address the issue of early weaning by HIV-infected women, and to support safe breastfeeding up to 6 months.
SAHARA J: journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance / SAHARA , Human Sciences Research Council 07/2010; 7(1):24-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for a maximum of 6 months, compared with 12.1% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Among the women who were not breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=108), 82.5% of the HIV-infected women had stopped breastfeeding within 3 months, compared with 23.5% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Only 2.1% of HIV-infected women seen up to 14 weeks postnatally practised mixed feeding, compared with 23.6% of HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). After 6 months, however, 30% of the HIV-infected women and 55% of the HIV-uninfected mothers were using mixed feeding, with no significant differences. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV should re-enforce counselling activities to address the issue of early weaning by HIV-infected women, and to support safe breastfeeding up to 6 months. Résumé Pour décrire les pratiques d'alimentation du nourrisson dans la population générale en Ouganda et pour évaluer l'impact de l' état sérologique de la mère sur ces pratiques, un questionnaire a été soumis à des femmes fréquentant des cliniques de suivi pour la vaccination des enfants. Parmi les mères qui allaitaient encore au moment de l' entretien (N= 838), 61.4% (35 sur 57) des femmes séropositives avaient prévu d'allaiter pendant un maximum de 6 mois contre 12.1% (95 sur 781) des femmes séronégatives (p<0.001). Parmi les femmes qui n'allaitaient pas au moment de l' entretien (N=108), 82.5% (33 sur 40) des femmes séropositives avaient arrêté d'allaiter dans les 3 mois contre 23.5% (16 sur 68) des femmes séronégatives (p<0.001). Seulement deux femmes séropositives sur 92 (2.1%) vues jusqu'à 14 semaines après la naissance pratiquaient une alimentation mixte contre 184 sur 779 (23.6%) des femmes séronégatives (p<0.001). A 6 mois, cependant, 30% (3 sur 10) des femmes séropositives et 55% (88 sur 160) des femmes séronégatives pratiquaient une alimentation mixte du nourrisson, sans différence significative. Les programmes de prévention de la transmission du VIH de la mère à l' enfant devraient renforcer les activités d'assistance psychosociale pour traiter la question du sevrage d'un bébé par les femmes séropositives et soutenir un allaitement sûr jusqu'à 6 mois.
SAHARA J: journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance / SAHARA , Human Sciences Research Council 07/2010; 7(1). DOI:10.1080/17290376.2010.9724952 · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the safety of 0.5% and 2% PRO 2000 gel in terms of local and systemic adverse events (AE) and the acceptability of gel use.
A randomised placebo-controlled trial among healthy, sexually active African women aged 18-45 years. Between June 2003 and September 2004, 180 consenting women were randomly assigned to one of four groups: PRO 2000 gel (0.5% or 2%), placebo gel, or condom use only. Participants were screened for sexually transmitted infections, with HIV counselling and testing. Women randomly assigned to gel used this intravaginally twice a day for 28 days. Follow-up visits were fortnightly up to 6 weeks from enrolment, and comprised a physical examination including colposcopy, laboratory testing and questionnaire interviews.
Ten women were lost to follow-up, none due to AE. Adherence with total gel doses was 69%. Observed rates of the primary toxicity endpoints, ulceration greater than 2 x 1 cm and clinically relevant coagulation abnormalities were, for PRO 2000 0.5%: 1.6% (95% CI 0.04% to 8.5%) and 0% (97.5% CI 0% to 5.7%), and for PRO 2000 2%: 0% and 0% (97.5% CI 0% to 5.9%). Women randomly assigned to active gels did not show an increased rate of AE. Gel use had no significant effect on haematology and biochemistry results. Women found gel use highly acceptable.
Both concentrations of PRO 2000 gel were found to be safe and well tolerated. These data justified testing the gels in large-scale effectiveness trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Each year, approximately 2 million babies die because of complications of childbirth, primarily in settings where effective care at birth, particularly prompt cesarean delivery, is unavailable.
We reviewed the content, impact, risk-benefit, and feasibility of interventions for obstetric complications with high population attributable risk of intrapartum-related hypoxic injury, as well as human resource, skill development, and technological innovations to improve obstetric care quality and availability.
Despite ecological associations of obstetric care with improved perinatal outcomes, there is limited evidence that intrapartum interventions reduce intrapartum-related neonatal mortality or morbidity. No interventions had high-quality evidence of impact on intrapartum-related outcomes in low-resource settings. While data from high-resource settings support planned cesarean for breech presentation and post-term induction, these interventions may be unavailable or less safe in low-resource settings and require risk-benefit assessment. Promising interventions include use of the partograph, symphysiotomy, amnioinfusion, therapeutic maneuvers for shoulder dystocia, improved management of intra-amniotic infections, and continuous labor support. Obstetric drills, checklists, and innovative low-cost devices could improve care quality. Task-shifting to alternative cadres may increase coverage of care.
While intrapartum care aims to avert intrapartum-related hypoxic injury, rigorous evidence is lacking, especially in the settings where most deaths occur. Effective care at birth could save hundreds of thousands of lives a year, with investment in health infrastructure, personnel, and research--both for innovation and to improve implementation.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 08/2009; 107 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S21-44, S44-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.07.017 · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.
Reproductive Health 02/2009; 6(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1742-4755-6-2 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several recent reviews of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and mortality have emphasised that a large range of interventions are available with the potential to reduce deaths and disability. The emphasis within MNCH varies, with skilled care at facility levels recommended for saving maternal lives and scale-up of community and household care for improving newborn and child survival. Systematic review of new evidence on potentially useful interventions and delivery strategies identifies 37 key promotional, preventive, and treatment interventions and strategies for delivery in primary health care. Some are especially suitable for delivery through community support groups and health workers, whereas others can only be delivered by linking community-based strategies with functional first-level referral facilities. Case studies of MNCH indicators in Pakistan and Uganda show how primary health-care interventions can be used effectively. Inclusion of evidence-based interventions in MNCH programmes in primary health care at pragmatic coverage in these two countries could prevent 20-30% of all maternal deaths (up to 32% with capability for caesarean section at first-level facilities), 20-21% of newborn deaths, and 29-40% of all postneonatal deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Strengthening MNCH at the primary health-care level should be a priority for countries to reach their Millennium Development Goal targets for reducing maternal and child mortality.
The Lancet 10/2008; 372(9642):972-89. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61407-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: to explore the perceptions among post-delivery mothers of skin-to-skin contact and newborn baby care.
a qualitative design using focus-group discussions. Five focus groups were conducted with post-delivery mothers who had had normal deliveries. A latent content analysis was used to derive the themes from the focus-group discussions.
30 post-delivery mothers were purposely sampled from 249 mothers in the postnatal ward at St Francis Hospital, Nsambya, which is located in a periurban area in Kampala, Uganda.
two main themes emerged from the focus-group discussions: 'acceptability of health practices are influenced by knowledge and sensitisation' and 'pregnant women's choices are dependent on social, cultural and economic factors'. Mothers expressed varying opinions about the usefulness of skin-to-skin contact: some knew about its use to reduce the risk of hypothermia; others were ignorant, whereas some believed skin-to-skin contact was an intervention used to distract them from the pain in the post-delivery period. The vernix caseosa and the mixture of amniotic fluid with blood in the post-delivery period were perceived as dirty and infectious. The best informants for helping mothers understand the skin-to-skin intervention were the health-care providers. Social, cultural and economic factors, as well as the dominant role of the husband, were identified as important determinants for their choice and place of delivery.
the gap between the knowledge and practice of skin-to-skin contact in hospital needs to be bridged. Health-care providers need to be encouraged to continuously advocate for, educate and implement regular skin-to-skin contact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective survey to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections was conducted on the samples of 247 African HIV-1 positive pregnant women who had participated to a mother-to-child prevention trial carried out in urban settings in Kampala, Uganda and Kigali, Rwanda. Hepatitis B markers studied were HBs antigen (HBsAg) and, if positive after confirmatory testing, HBe antigen/anti-HBe antibodies and HBV DNA. A fourth generation HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used for primary HCV screening. Positive samples were analyzed further with a second different EIA. Both for HBV and for HCV the use of confirmatory tests allowed the removal of frequent false-positive screening results. HBsAg was found in 10/246 women (seroprevalence 4.1%, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.7-6.8): 8/164 (4.9%) in Uganda and 2/82 (2.4%) in Rwanda. HBe Ag was found in 33% of HBsAg-positive patients and HBV DNA was quantifiable in 71%. Anti-HCV antibodies were found in 5/247 women (seroprevalence 2.0% 95%CI 0.3-3.9): 1/165 (0.6%) in Uganda and 4/82 (4.9%) in Rwanda. There was no interrelation between HCV and HBV markers. There was no difference between patients with and without co-infection with HBV or HCV with regards to CD4+ cell count. Overall, hepatitis B and C co-infection was relatively infrequent in this group of pregnant women. However, since approximately 6% of HIV-positive women in these countries had a co-infection with one hepatitis virus, caution should be used in the monitoring of possible hepatotoxicity related to antiretroviral drugs in these populations.
Journal of Medical Virology 12/2007; 79(12):1797-801. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The continuum of care has become a rallying call to reduce the yearly toll of half a million maternal deaths, 4 million neonatal deaths, and 6 million child deaths. The continuum for maternal, newborn, and child health usually refers to continuity of individual care. Continuity of care is necessary throughout the lifecycle (adolescence, pregnancy, childbirth, the postnatal period, and childhood) and also between places of caregiving (including households and communities, outpatient and outreach services, and clinical-care settings). We define a population-level or public-health framework based on integrated service delivery throughout the lifecycle, and propose eight packages to promote health for mothers, babies, and children. These packages can be used to deliver more than 190 separate interventions, which would be difficult to scale up one by one. The packages encompass three which are delivered through clinical care (reproductive health, obstetric care, and care of sick newborn babies and children); four through outpatient and outreach services (reproductive health, antenatal care, postnatal care and child health services); and one through integrated family and community care throughout the lifecycle. Mothers and babies are at high risk in the first days after birth, and the lack of a defined postnatal care package is an important gap, which also contributes to discontinuity between maternal and child health programmes. Similarly, because the family and community package tends not to be regarded as part of the health system, few countries have made systematic efforts to scale it up or integrate it with other levels of care. Building the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health with these packages will need effectiveness trials in various settings; policy support for integration; investment to strengthen health systems; and results-based operational management, especially at district level.
The Lancet 11/2007; 370(9595):1358-69. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61578-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the experience of health workers who had played key roles in the early stages of implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services (PMTCT) in Uganda.
Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including counsellors, obstetricians and PMTCT coordinators at the five PMTCT test sites in Uganda to investigate the benefits, challenges and sustainability of the PMTCT programme. Audio-taped interviews were held with each informant between January and June 2003. These were transcribed verbatim and manually analysed using the framework approach.
The perceived benefits reported by informants were improvement of general obstetric care, provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-positive mothers, staff training and community awareness. The main challenges lay in the reluctance of women to be tested for HIV, incomplete follow-up of participants, non-disclosure of HIV status and difficulties with infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers. Key informants thought that the programme's sustainability depended on maintaining staff morale and numbers, on improving services and providing more resources, particularly antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive women and their families.
Uganda's experience in piloting the PMTCT programme reflected the many challenges faced by health workers. Potentially resource-sparing strategies such as the 'opt-out' approach to HIV testing required further evaluation.
Journal of Public Health 10/2007; 29(3):269-74. DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdm025 · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This exploratory study examined health worker's perspectives and the type of HIV care received in three different delivery models of antiretroviral treatment (ART) at St Francis Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Two of the clinics were financed by external donors and the third through out-of-pocket payments. Key informant interviews with health workers investigated potential challenges with ART care, and exit interviews with patients collected data on the care received. Despite the fact that all three clinics were located in the same hospital, services offered and quality of care varied extensively. Health staff at all ART clinics identified the lack of collaboration between different HIV programmes and low patient adherence as the main challenges. More women than men accessed ART through the externally financed programmes. These programmes provided more comprehensive care because of higher staff density and more frequent laboratory monitoring compared to the private clinic. Despite these shortcomings and the fact that prescriptions were often renewed without a preceding medical check-up at the private clinic, many chose to pay a monthly average equivalent of US$60 for ART in return for privacy and access to drugs without HIV disclosure requirements. Stigma and fear of abandonment were thought to be the main barriers for access to ART.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10/2007; 101(9):885-92. DOI:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.04.024 · 1.84 Impact Factor