Naoko Saito

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (47)85.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anastomosis of the carotid-anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare anomalous vessel that arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) at the level of the ophthalmic artery and takes an infraoptic and prechiasmatic path to anastomose with the ACA. It has known right-sided predominance. We report the case of an 83-year-old man with a left carotid-ACA anastomosis that was diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography from the neck to the head during investigation of transient left hemiplegia. The right ICA was occluded at its origin. Our literature search revealed only six reported cases of left carotid-ACA anastomoses. We believe ours is the first case diagnosed by MR angiography.
    Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Penetrating neck injuries are commonly related to stab wounds and gunshot wounds in the United States. The injuries are classified by penetration site in terms of the three anatomical zones of the neck. Based on this zonal classification system, penetrating injuries to the head and neck have traditionally been evaluated by conventional angiography and/or surgical exploration. In recent years, multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) angiography has significantly improved detectability of vascular injuries and extravascular injuries in the setting of penetrating injuries. CT angiography is a fast and minimally invasive imaging modality to evaluate penetrating injuries of the head and neck for stable patients. The spectrum of penetrating neck injuries includes vascular injury (extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, dissection, occlusion, and arteriovenous fistula), aerodigestive injury (esophageal and tracheal injuries), salivary gland injury, neurologic injury (spinal canal and cerebral injuries), and osseous injury, all of which can be evaluated using CT angiography. Familiarity with the complications and imaging characteristics of penetrating injuries of the head and neck is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment.
    The Keio Journal of Medicine 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) can affect the orbit with prior reports describing changes in the lacrimal gland potentially related to chronic vaso-occlusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lacrimal gland volumes and quantifiable shifts in MR-relaxation times in patients with SCD.
    Journal of computer assisted tomography. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although identification of human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is essential in predicting treatment response, no imaging modality can currently determine whether a tumor is HPV-related. In this retrospective study, 26 patients with OPSCC confined to the lateral wall or the base of tongue underwent neck magnetic resonance imaging, using T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in a region of interest covering the largest available primary tumor area of OPSCC on a single slice of the ADC map were calculated using two b values (0 and 1,000 s/mm(2)). Mean and minimum ADCs were compared with HPV status, using p16 immunohistochemistry as a surrogate marker for HPV infection. Mean and minimum ADCs for HPV(+) OPSCC were significantly lower than those for HPV(-) OPSCC. A cut-off value of mean ADC for HPV(+) OPSCC of 1.027 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s yielded sensitivity and specificity of 83.33 and 78.57 %, respectively. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ADC could be used to predict HPV status in patients with OPSCC.
    Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 07/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We evaluated the prevalence and imaging characteristics of ring-shaped lateral ventricular nodules (RSLVNs) detected by postcontrast brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed cranial MR images of 1,241 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced brain imaging between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011, excluded images of inadequate quality of 130 patients, and ultimately analyzed images of 1,111 patients (544 male, 567 female). We assessed location, shape, and signal intensity of RSLVNs on T1-weighted (T1WIs), T2-weighted (T2WIs), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and diffusion-weighted (DWIs) images and characteristics of contrast enhancement. Results: In 5 patients, we found 6 RSLVNs (0.45%), four in the frontal horn and two in the roof of the body. Three RSLVNs were round, two were oval, and one was lobular on axial images. All 6 RSLVNs were isointense with adjacent brain parenchyma on T1WI, T2WI, and DWI but slightly hyperintense on FLAIR images; none showed enhancement on postcontrast MR imaging. Five nodules serially examined (range, 8 to 24 months) showed no interval changes. Conclusions: Our MR imaging findings of a 0.45% prevalence of RSLVNs shows they are not so rare as previously reported. Except for configuration, all nodules had similar intensity, and none showed contrast enhancement. Absence of changes during the follow-up period seemed to indicate that the nodules have no clinical significance. However, their clear differentiation avoids unnecessary surgery.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences 05/2013; · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study age-related characteristics of T1 and T2 relaxation times and volume of the major salivary glands. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects (0.5-87 years old) with normal salivary glands were imaged with mixed turbo spin-echo pulse sequences at 1.5-T magnetic resonance units. Bilateral parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands were segmented manually. Histograms for each salivary gland were generated and modeled with Gaussian functions for every parameter. RESULTS: Seventy parotid glands, 52 submandibular glands, and 50 sublingual glands were segmented and the histograms were analyzed. The parotid gland exhibited shorter-peak T1s and longer-peak T2s relative to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The peak T2s for all glands showed a minimum value between 2 and 4 years of age and increased monotonically thereafter. From birth to early adulthood, all glands increased in size logarithmically. CONCLUSION: Age-related relaxo-volumetric changes of the major salivary glands show clear T2 and volumetric age-related patterns for all glands.
    Journal of computer assisted tomography 03/2013; 37(2):272-278. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: A persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery (OA) is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure (SOF). Occasionally, the OA also arises from the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and enters the orbit via the SOF. These two major variations of the OA have not been well described by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. We evaluated their prevalence on MR angiography at 3 T. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database of MR angiographic images obtained using a 3 T imager. Of images of 846 patients, we evaluated those of 826 patients (1,652 OAs) with special attention to OA origin and its course into the orbit. We excluded images of the 20 because quality was insufficient to assess. RESULTS: We found 7 (0.42 %) persistent dorsal OAs among 1,652 OAs (right/left, 6/1; male/female, 3/4). Twenty-four (1.45 %) OAs arose from the MMA (right/left/bilateral, 11/5/4; male/female, 10/10), three of which also demonstrated a small normally branching OA. In one patient, we observed both right persistent dorsal OA and left OA arising from the MMA. CONCLUSIONS: Per OA, the prevalence of persistent dorsal OA was 0.42 % and of OA arising from the MMA, 1.45 %, with a tendency toward right-side predominance. OA arising from the MMA can be seen bilaterally; preprocedural knowledge of this variation is important because of the danger associated with endovascular procedures of the external carotid system when the OA arises from the MMA.
    Anatomia Clinica 02/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The origin of the vertebral artery (VA) varies, though most VAs enter the transverse foramen (TF) of the sixth cervical vertebra. On computed tomography (CT) angiographic images, we evaluated the prevalence of variations of both VA origin and its level of entry into the TF. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed CT angiographic images of 2,287 patients obtained using either of two 64-slice multidetector CT scanners. All patients were Japanese and underwent scanning from the aortic arch to the intracranial region; most had or were suspected of having cerebrovascular diseases. RESULTS: The left VA (LVA) arose from the aorta between the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery in 94 patients (4.1 %) and in other variations in 44 patients (1.9 %). The right VA (RVA) arose from the extreme proximal segment of the right subclavian artery in 72 patients (3.1 %) and in other variations in 14 patients (0.6 %). The LVA entered the sixth TF in 2,127 patients (93.0 %), and the RVA entered the sixth TF in 2,146 patients (93.8 %). Anomalous origin and anomalous entry level into the TF correlated strongly. CONCLUSIONS: The total prevalence of variation in the origin of the LVA was 6.0 % and of the RVA, 3.8 %. The total prevalence of variation in entry level into the TF was 7.0 % for the LVA and 6.2 % for the RVA. Recognition and reporting of these variations is important in interpreting CT angiography to prevent complications during surgery of the aortic arch or lower neck.
    Neuroradiology 01/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinicoradiological manifestations of craniofacial bone infarcts in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). After institutional review board approval, we identified 85 SCD patients who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a period of 5 years (January 1, 2004-December 31, 2008) and reviewed their clinical presentations and radiological findings. Of 40 subjects with headache or facial pain, 6 (5 males, 1 female; age range, 2-22 years; 5 Hb SS, 1 Hb SC) were diagnosed with acute bone infarct by MRI. Of these 6, 4 demonstrated infarcts in the mandible. Magnetic resonance images showed bone marrow edema, subperiosteal fluid collections with susceptibility effects suggesting associated hemorrhage, and heterogeneous enhancement. Acute craniofacial bone infarcts were found in 7% of SCD patients who underwent MRI and in 15% of SCD patients who presented with pain. The MRI showed characteristic imaging findings including marrow edema, subperiosteal hematoma, and heterogeneous enhancement.
    Journal of computer assisted tomography 01/2013; 37(1):91-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periapical lucencies are often seen incidentally at head and neck imaging studies performed for indications not related to the teeth. These lesions are, however, occasionally manifestations of diseases that have a wide range of effects and may at times represent the source of symptoms that prompted the study. The vast majority of periapical lucencies are the result of apical periodontal or pulpal disease. If found in an advanced state or left untreated, disease related to the tooth may spread to adjacent tissues, including the sinuses, orbits, deep fascial spaces of the neck, and intracranial structures, and result in a significant increase in patient morbidity and mortality. Although the majority of periapical lucencies seen on radiographs and computed tomographic images occur secondary to apical periodontal or pulpal disease, not all lucencies near the tooth root are due to infection. Lucency near the tooth root may be seen in the setting of other diseases of odontogenic and non-odontogenic origin, including neoplasms. Although imaging findings for these lesions can include periapical lucent components, awareness of the varied secondary imaging features can aid the radiologist in developing an accurate differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging features and differential diagnoses of diseases or conditions that cause lucency around the tooth root results in appropriate referral and prompt diagnosis, management, and treatment, and can prevent unnecessary additional imaging or intervention. In addition, early recognition and appropriate treatment of infectious processes will result in improved clinical outcomes and a decrease in morbidity and mortality.
    Radiographics 01/2013; 33(1):E15-32. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the MR relaxometric features of the major salivary glands in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods 15 patients with SCD (aged 19.8-43.6 years) and 12 controls were imaged with the mixed turbo-spin echo pulse sequence. The major salivary glands were manually segmented and T(1), T(2) and secular T(2) relaxometry histograms were modelled with Gaussian functions. Results Shortened T(1) relaxation times were seen solely in the submandibular glands of patients with SCD (747.5 ± 54.8 ms vs 807.1 ± 38.3 ms, p < 0.001). Slight T(2) and secular T(2) shortening were seen in the parotid gland; however, this difference was not significant (p = 0.07). The sublingual gland showed no changes under MR relaxometry. There was no difference in glandular volumes, and no correlation was demonstrated between history of blood transfusion and salivary gland relaxometry. Conclusions Patients with SCD exhibited changes in quantitative MRI T(1) relaxometry histograms of the submandibular glands.
    Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 12/2012; 41(8):630-6. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The left common carotid artery (LCCA) is usually a second branch of the aortic arch that arises between the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) and left subclavian artery; relatively frequently, it also arises from or shares a common origin with the BCT. In patients with LCCA of anomalous origin, transfemoral catheterization into the LCCA is sometimes difficult, and transbrachial or transradial approach may be recommended. We evaluated the prevalence of these variations on computed tomography (CT) angiography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed CT angiographic images of 2,357 patients obtained using either of two 64-slice multidetector CT scanners. All patients were Japanese and underwent scanning from the aortic arch to the intracranial region; most had or were suspected of having cerebrovascular diseases. RESULTS: We evaluated CT angiographic images of 2,352 patients after excluding four patients with LCCA occluded at its origin. The LCCA arose from the BCT in 141 patients (6.0 %) and had a common origin with the BCT in 130 patients (5.5 %). We found 11 aberrant right subclavian artery (0.47 %), and four of the 11 patients (36 %) had LCCA of common origin with the right common carotid artery, forming a bicarotid trunk (prevalence: 0.17 %). CONCLUSIONS: The total prevalence of variations of LCCA origin diagnosed by CT angiography was 11.7 %.
    Anatomia Clinica 11/2012; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This article describes the role of imaging in evaluating cervical lymphadenopathy in patients from birth to their mid-20s, illustrates imaging features of normal and abnormal lymph nodes, and highlights nodal imaging features and head and neck findings that assist in diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Cervical lymph node abnormalities are commonly encountered clinically and on imaging in children and young adults. Although imaging findings can lack specificity, nodal characteristics and associated head and neck imaging findings can assist in determining the underlying cause.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2012; 199(5):1105-13. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify and characterize sickle cell disease (SCD)-related changes in the composition of mandibular bone marrow using qMRI relaxometry histograms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen SCD patients and 17 controls underwent brain MR imaging with the mixed turbo spin-echo (TSE) pulse sequence at 1.5T. The mandible was manually segmented and divided into body, angle, ramus, and condyle. T1 and T2 histograms of each mandible were modeled with Gaussian functions. The relaxation time histogram peaks were calculated, and the number of monomodal versus bimodal curves was compared. RESULTS: SCD patients exhibited monomodal distributions on both T1 and T2 histograms, consistent with a composition of predominantly red hematopoietic marrow. Eighty-eight percent of mandibles in control subjects exhibited a bimodal distribution in T1 and all showed a bimodal distribution in T2, indicating mixed but predominantly yellow marrow composition. The second peak in control subjects was shorter in T1 and longer in T2, consistent with yellow marrow composition. CONCLUSION: Instead of physiological fatty replacement, SCD patients exhibit red marrow persistence in the mandible, likely due to the increased demand for hematopoiesis. This phenomenon can be manifested by a monomodal curve in both T1 and T2 relaxometric histograms. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We report a case of type 1 proatlantal intersegmental artery (PIA) associated with multiple anomalies of the aortic arch, and discuss the possible embryonic mechanism and clinical importance of the multiple cerebrovascular variants in this patient. METHODS: A 65-year-old woman with dizziness underwent cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and head and neck MR angiography using a 3-tesla scanner and computed tomography (CT) angiography using a 64-slice multidetector CT scanner. RESULTS: MR and CT angiography demonstrated an aneurysm of the distal end of the azygos anterior cerebral arteries and hypoplasia of the proximal right vertebral artery (VA) with an anastomotic artery, between the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and distal right VA that passed through the foramen magnum, indicating a type 1 PIA. She also demonstrated an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) with hypoplasia of the right VA, and the left VA arose directly from the aortic arch. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type 1 PIA associated with multiple vascular anomalies of the aortic arch, such as ARSA and origin of the left VA from the arch. In cases of persistent anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries, such as PIAs, imaging examination should include the aortic arch to identify associated vascular variations.
    Anatomia Clinica 09/2012; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with head and neck cancer, posttreatment imaging can be complicated and difficult to interpret because of the complexity of the surgical procedures performed and the postirradiation changes, but such imaging is critical for the evaluation of (a) the response to therapy and (b) tumor control. Posttreatment changes are affected by the type of surgery performed, reconstruction, neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Three types of flaps are used for reconstruction in the head and neck region: (a) the local flap, with geometric repositioning of adjacent tissue; (b) the pedicle flap, with rotation of donor tissue and preservation of the original vascular system; and (c) the free flap, with transfer of tissue that is revascularized by using microvascular surgical techniques. The posttreatment imaging findings in patients with head and neck cancer can be divided into four groups: altered anatomy secondary to surgical reconstruction, tumor recurrence, potential postsurgical complications, and possible postirradiation changes. Potential postsurgical complications are wound infection, abscess, fistula, flap necrosis, hematoma, chylous fistula, and serous retention. Possible postirradiation changes include mucosal necrosis, osteoradionecrosis, radiation-induced vasculopathy, radiation pneumonitis, radiation lung fibrosis, radiation-induced brain necrosis, and radiation-induced secondary malignancies. A familiarity with the imaging characteristics of posttreatment changes and of the potential complications caused by surgery and irradiation and an ability to differentiate these findings from tumor recurrence are essential for posttreatment surveillance and follow-up management of patients with head and neck cancer. © RSNA, 2012.
    Radiographics 09/2012; 32(5):1261-82. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Assessment of bone marrow is most commonly performed qualitatively in the spine or other large long bones. The craniofacial bones are less ideal for bone marrow analysis because of the relatively small bone marrow volume. Because patients with SCD often undergo repeated brain imaging to evaluate for cerebral vaso-occlusive disease, quantitative assessment of craniofacial bone marrow is a reasonable possibility in these patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate specific sickle cell disease changes in craniofacial bone marrow quantitatively by analyzing T1, T2, and secular-T2 relaxation times and volume with the use of quantitative MRI.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fourteen patients with SCD and 17 control subjects were imaged with the mixed TSE pulse sequence at 1.5T. The craniofacial bones were manually segmented by using 3D Slicer to generate bone marrow volumes and to provide T1, T2, and secular-T2 relaxation times.RESULTS:All subjects exhibited a bimodal T1 histogram. In the SCD group, there was a decrease in amplitude in the first T1 peak and an increase in amplitude in the second T1 peak. The first T1 peak showed a significant increase in relaxation time compared with control subjects (P < .0001), whereas there was no significant difference in the second T1 peak. T2 and secular-T2 relaxation times were significantly shorter in the SCD group (T2, P < .0001; secular-T2, P < .0001). Increasing numbers of blood transfusions resulted in a decrease in T2 and secular-T2 times. Patients with SCD exhibited a larger bone marrow volume compared with control subjects, even after standardization.CONCLUSIONS:Patients with SCD exhibited significant quantifiable changes in the craniofacial bone marrow because of failure of red-to-yellow marrow conversion and iron deposition that can be identified by qMRI relaxometry and volumetry. Both qMRI relaxometry and volumetry may be used as noninvasive tools for assessment of disease severity.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rarely, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) inferolaterally and enters into the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. This anomalous OA that originates from the inferolateral trunk is regarded as a persistent dorsal OA. Extremely rarely, both normal OA and persistent dorsal OA arise from the ICA. We report the first case of such double OAs, one of which arose from the cavernous segment of the ICA superolaterally and we believe that it originated from the meningohypophyseal trunk rather than the inferolateral trunk.
    Anatomia Clinica 08/2012; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) is the second most common anastomosis between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems and demonstrates some variations. We evaluated the prevalence of PHA on computed tomography (CT) angiography. We also evaluated characteristic features of PHA and its variants on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database of 2,074 CT angiographic images obtained using either of two 64-slice multidetector CT scanners. We also reviewed our database of 7,646 MR angiographic images obtained using either of two 1.5-T or one 3.0-T imager. We could not determine the exact number of patients whose MR angiography included the hypoglossal canal. Most patients had or were suspected of having cerebrovascular diseases. RESULTS: We found six usual PHAs arising from the cervical internal carotid artery on CT angiography among 2,074 patients. On MR angiography, we also found six additional usual PHAs (total 12, right/left = 6/6, male/female = 3/9), three right PHAs originating from the external carotid artery (ECA), and two posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICAs) arising from the ECA without connection to the vertebral artery. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of usual PHA diagnosed by CT angiography was 0.29 %, slightly higher than that reported for angiography and may be due to selection bias in the examined patients. We propose naming usual PHA "type 1 PHA"; PHA originating from the ECA, of which we found three, "type 2 PHA"; and PICA arising from the ECA, of which we found two, "type 2 PHA variant."
    Neuroradiology 07/2012; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic capability of proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions on the basis of qualitative and quantitative approaches. METHODS: We performed single-voxel (1)H MRS for 208 breast lesions, identified a clear total composite choline compounds (tCho) peak of signal-to-noise of ≥2 to represent malignancy (qualitative approach), and regarded tCho concentration equal to or greater than the cut-off value to represent malignancy (quantitative approach). We compared the diagnostic ability of both approaches using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and McFadden's R (2). RESULTS: Histologically, 169 lesions were malignant; 39 were benign. The qualitative approach demonstrated 84.6 % sensitivity and 51.3 % specificity for differentiating malignant and benign lesions. The mean tCho concentration was 1.13 mmol/kg for malignancy, 0.43 mmol/kg for benignity. The optimal cut-off point was 0.61 mmol/kg, use of which achieved 68.1 % sensitivity and 79.4 % specificity. Calculated AIC and R (2) score suggested the superiority of the quantitative approach for differentiating malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative MRS provides higher specificity than qualitative MRS for differentiating malignant from benign lesions and could be more useful as an additional examination in routine breast MR imaging. KEY POINTS : • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the breast helps distinguish malignant from benign lesions. • Magnetic resonance spectra demonstrate a choline signal even from benign lesions. • Choline concentration is higher in breast carcinomas than in benign lesions. • Quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy differentiates breast malignancies better than qualitative MRS.
    European Radiology 07/2012; · 4.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

123 Citations
85.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2013
    • Boston University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Saitama Medical University
      • Department of Radiology
      Saitama, Saitama-ken, Japan