[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortical interneurons are classified into several subtypes that contribute to cortical oscillatory activity. Parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, a type of inhibitory interneuron, are involved in the gamma oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs). Under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia or sleep, mammalian cortical circuits exhibit slow oscillations in which the active-up state and silent-down state alternate at ~1 Hz. The up state is composed of various high-frequency oscillations, including gamma oscillations. However, it is unclear how PV cells and somatostatin (SOM) cells contribute to the slow oscillations and the high-frequency oscillations nested in the up state. To address these questions, we used mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 67, primarily in PV cells (PV-GAD67 mice) or in SOM cells (SOM-GAD67 mice). We then compared LFPs between PV-GAD67 mice and SOM-GAD67 mice. PV cells target the proximal regions of pyramidal cells, whereas SOM cells are dendrite-preferring interneurons. We found that the up state was shortened in duration in the PV-GAD67 mice, but tended to be longer in SOM-GAD67 mice. Firing rate tended to increase in PV-GAD67 mice, but tended to decrease in SOM-GAD67 mice. We also found that delta oscillations tended to increase in SOM-GAD67 mice, but tended to decrease in PV-GAD67 mice. Current source density and wavelet analyses were performed to determine the depth profiles of various high-frequency oscillations. High gamma and ripple (60-200 Hz) power decreased in the neocortical upper layers specifically in PV-GAD67 mice, but not in SOM-GAD67. In addition, beta power (15-30 Hz) increased in the deep layers, specifically in PV-GAD67 mice. These results suggest that PV cells play important roles in persistence of the up state and in the balance between gamma and beta bands across cortical layers, whereas SOM and PV cells may make an asymmetric contribution to regulate up-state and delta oscillations.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits 02/2015; 9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent human studies have indicated that adverse parenting experiences during childhood and adolescence are associated with adulthood hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity. Chronic HPA axis hypoactivity inhibits hippocampal gray matter (GM) development, as shown by animal studies. However, associations among adverse parenting experiences during childhood and adolescence, HPA axis activity, and brain development, particularly hippocampal development, are insufficiently investigated in humans. In this voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging study, using a cross-sectional design, we examined the associations among the scores of parental bonding instrument (PBI; a self-report scale to rate the attitudes of parents during the first 16 years), cortisol response determined by the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test, and regional or total hippocampal GM volume in forty healthy young adults with the following features: aged between 18 and 35 years, no cortisol hypersecretion in response to the dexamethasone test, no history of traumatic events, or no past or current conditions of significant medical illness or neuropsychiatric disorders. As a result, parental overprotection scores significantly negatively correlated with cortisol response. Additionally, a significant positive association was found between cortisol response and total or regional hippocampal GM volume. No significant association was observed between PBI scores and total or regional hippocampal GM volume. In conclusion, statistical associations were found between parental overprotection during childhood and adolescence and adulthood HPA axis hypoactivity, and between HPA axis hypoactivity and hippocampal GM volume reduction in healthy young adults, but no significant relationship was observed between any PBI scores and adulthood hippocampal GM volume.
Human Brain Mapping 12/2011; 33(9):2211-23. · 6.92 Impact Factor