James K Fredrickson

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States

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Publications (261)857.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Increasing concentrations of H2 with depth were observed across a geologic unconformity and associated redox transition zone in the subsurface at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, USA. An opposing gradient characterized by decreasing O2 and nitrate concentrations was consistent with microbial-catalyzed biogeochemical processes. Sterile sand was incubated in situ within a multi-level sampler placed across the redox transition zone to evaluate the potential for Tc(VII) reduction and for enrichment of H2-oxidizing denitrifiers capable of reducing Tc(VII). H2-driven TcO4- reduction was detected in sand incubated at all depths but was strongest in material from a depth of 17.1 m. Acidovorax spp. were isolated from H2-nitrate enrichments from colonized sand from 15.1 m, with one representative, strain JHL-9, subsequently characterized. JHL-9 grew on acetate with either O2 or nitrate as electron acceptor (data not shown) and on medium with bicarbonate, H2 and nitrate. JHL-9 also reduced pertechnetate (TcO4-) under denitrifying conditions with H2 as the electron donor. H2-oxidizing Acidovorax spp. in the subsurface at Hanford and other locations may contribute to the maintenance of subsurface redox gradients and offer the potential for Tc(VII) reduction.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12263 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    Liang Shi, James K Fredrickson, John M Zachara
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    ABSTRACT: The porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11/2014; 5:657. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00657 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B-group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin cross-feeding as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C. aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E. coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12227 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobactersulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB geneis part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaCand OmcB/OmcCof G.sulfurreducensPCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla,demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G.sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G.sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G.sulfurreducensPCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12204 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial mats are characterized by extensive metabolic interactions, rapidly changing internal geochemical gradients, and prevalent microenvironments within tightly constrained physical structures. We present laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA-IRMS) as a culture-independent, spatially-specific technology for tracking accumulation of 13C labeled substrate into heterogeneous microbial mat communities. This study demonstrates LA-IRMS capability by tracking labeled bicarbonate incorporation into a cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat system and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such application of LA-IRMS. The spatial resolution of 50 μm was sufficient for distinguishing different mat strata and the approach effectively identified regions of greatest label incorporation. Sample preparation for LA-IRMS is straightforward and the spatial selectivity of LA-IRMS minimizes the volume of mat consumed, leaving material for complimentary analyses. We present analysis of DNA extracted from a sample post-ablation and suggest pigments, lipids, or other biomarkers could similarly be extracted following ablation. LA-IRMS is well positioned to spatially resolve accumulation of any 13C-labeled substrate provided to a mat, making this a versatile tool for studying carbon transfer and interspecies exchanges within the limited spatial confines of such systems.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12211 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Redox-reactive, biogeochemical phases generated by reductive microbial activity in hyporheic zone sediments from a dynamic groundwater–river interaction zone were evaluated for their ability to reduce soluble pertechnetate [99Tc(VII)O4−] to less soluble Tc(IV). The sediments were bioreduced by indigenous microorganisms that were stimulated by organic substrate addition in synthetic groundwater with or without sulfate. In most treatments, 20 μmol L−1 initial aqueous Tc(VII) was reduced to near or below detection (3.82 × 10−9 mol L−1) over periods of days to months in suspensions of variable solids concentrations. Native sediments containing significant lithogenic Fe(II) in various phases were, in contrast, unreactive with Tc(VII). The reduction rates in the bioreduced sediments increased with increases in sediment mass, in proportion to weak acid-extractable Fe(II) and sediment-associated sulfide (AVS). The rate of Tc(VII) reduction was first order with respect to both aqueous Tc(VII) concentration and sediment mass, but correlations between specific reductant concentrations and reaction rate were not found. X-ray microprobe measurements revealed a strong correlation between Tc hot spots and Fe-containing mineral particles in the sediment. However, only a portion of Fe-containing particles were Tc-hosts. The Tc-hot spots displayed a chemical signature (by EDXRF) similar to pyroxene. The application of autoradiography and electron microprobe allowed further isolation of Tc-containing particles that were invariably found to be ca 100 μm aggregates of primary mineral material embedded within a fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix. EXAFS spectroscopy revealed that the Tc(IV) within these were a combination of a Tc(IV)O2-like phase and Tc(IV)–Fe surface clusters, with a significant fraction of a TcSx-like phase in sediments incubated with SO42−. AVS was implicated as a more selective reductant at low solids concentration even though its concentration was below that required for stoichiometric reduction of Tc(VII). These results demonstrate that composite mineral aggregates may be redox reaction centers in coarse-textured hyporheic zone sediments regardless of the dominant anoxic biogeochemical processes.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 07/2014; 136:247–264. DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2013.08.017 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2014; 5:11. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00011 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria from the genus Pedobacter are a major component of microbial assemblages at Hanford Site and have been shown to significantly change in abundance in response to the subsurface intrusion of Columbia River water. Here we employed single cell genomics techniques to shed light on the physiological niche of these microorganisms. Analysis of four Pedobacter single amplified genomes (SAGs) from Hanford Site sediments revealed a chemoheterotrophic lifestyle, with the potential to exist under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions via expression of both aa3-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. These SAGs encoded a wide-range of both intra- and extra-cellular carbohydrate-active enzymes, enabling the degradation of recalcitrant substrates such as xylan and chitin, and the utilization of more labile sugars such as mannose and fucose. Coupled to these enzymes, a diversity of transporters and sugar-binding molecules were involved in the uptake of carbon from the extracellular local environment. The SAGs were enriched in TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which play a key role in uptake of substrates resulting from degradation of recalcitrant carbon. CRISPR-Cas mechanisms for resisting viral infections were identified in all SAGs. These data demonstrate the potential mechanisms utilized for survival by heterotrophic microorganisms in a carbon-limited aquifer, and hint at potential linkages between observed Pedobacter abundance shifts within the 300 Area subsurface and biogeochemical shifts associated with Columbia River water intrusion.
    Microbiology 12/2013; DOI:10.1099/mic.0.073965-0 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, the established in vivo orientation, electron transfer from the interior electron carrier pool through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The rates were 10(3) times higher than those reported for reduction of goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite by S. oneidensis, and the order of the reaction rates was consistent with those observed in S. oneidensis cultures. In contrast, established rates for single turnover reactions between purified MtrC and Fe(III) oxides were 10(3) times lower. By providing a continuous flow of electrons, the proteoliposome experiments demonstrate that conduction through MtrCAB directly to Fe(III) oxides is sufficient to support in vivo, anaerobic, solid-phase iron respiration.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; 110(16). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1220074110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-rhamnose (L-Rha) is a deoxy-hexose sugar commonly found in nature. L-Rha catabolic pathways were previously characterized in various bacteria including Escherichia coli. Nevertheless, homology searches failed to recognize all the genes for the complete L-Rha utilization pathways in diverse microbial species involved in biomass decomposition. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms of L-Rha catabolism have remained unclear in most species. A comparative genomics approach was used to reconstruct the L-Rha catabolic pathways and transcriptional regulons in the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Thermotogae. The reconstructed pathways include multiple novel enzymes and transporters involved in the utilization of L-Rha and L-Rha-containing polymers. Large-scale regulon inference using bioinformatics revealed remarkable variations in transcriptional regulators for L-Rha utilization genes among bacteria. A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. By using in vitro biochemical assays we validated both enzymatic activities of the purified recombinant RhaEW proteins from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Bacillus subtilis. Another novel enzyme of the L-Rha catabolism, L-lactaldehyde reductase (RhaZ), was identified in Gammaproteobacteria and experimentally validated by in vitro enzymatic assays using the recombinant protein from Salmonella typhimurium. C. aurantiacus induced transcription of the predicted L-Rha utilization genes when L-Rha was present in the growth medium and consumed L-Rha from the medium. This study provided comprehensive insights to L-Rha catabolism and its regulation in diverse Bacteria.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:407. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00407 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phototrophic microbial mats are compact ecosystems composed of highly interactive organisms in which energy and element cycling take place over millimeter-to-centimeter-scale distances. Although microbial mats are common in hypersaline environments, they have not been extensively characterized in systems dominated by divalent ions. Hot Lake is a meromictic, epsomitic lake that occupies a small, endorheic basin in north-central Washington. The lake harbors a benthic, phototrophic mat that assembles each spring, disassembles each fall, and is subject to greater than tenfold variation in salinity (primarily Mg(2+) and SO(2-) 4) and irradiation over the annual cycle. We examined spatiotemporal variation in the mat community at five time points throughout the annual cycle with respect to prevailing physicochemical parameters by amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene coupled to near-full-length 16S RNA clone sequences. The composition of these microbial communities was relatively stable over the seasonal cycle and included dominant populations of Cyanobacteria, primarily a group IV cyanobacterium (Leptolyngbya), and Alphaproteobacteria (specifically, members of Rhodobacteraceae and Geminicoccus). Members of Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Thioalkalivibrio and Halochromatium) and Deltaproteobacteria (e.g., Desulfofustis) that are likely to be involved in sulfur cycling peaked in summer and declined significantly by mid-fall, mirroring larger trends in mat community richness and evenness. Phylogenetic turnover analysis of abundant phylotypes employing environmental metadata suggests that seasonal shifts in light variability exert a dominant influence on the composition of Hot Lake microbial mat communities. The seasonal development and organization of these structured microbial mats provide opportunities for analysis of the temporal and physical dynamics that feed back to community function.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:323. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00323 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome MtrC is part of the transmembrane MtrCAB complex required for mineral respiration by Shewanella oneidensis. MtrC has significant sequence similarity to the paralogous decahaem cytochrome MtrF, which has been structurally solved through X-ray crystallography. This now allows for homology-based models of MtrC to be generated. The structure of these MtrC homology models contain ten bis-histidine-co-ordinated c-type haems arranged in a staggered cross through a four-domain structure. This model is consistent with current spectroscopic data and shows that the areas around haem 5 and haem 10, at the termini of an octahaem chain, are likely to have functions similar to those of the corresponding haems in MtrF. The electrostatic surfaces around haem 7, close to the β-barrels, are different in MtrF and MtrC, indicating that these haems may have different potentials and interact with substrates differently.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1181-5. DOI:10.1042/BST20120132 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The free energy profile for electron flow through the bacterial decahaem cytochrome MtrF has been computed using thermodynamic integration and classical molecular dynamics. The extensive calculations on two versions of the structure help to validate the method and results, because differences in the profiles can be related to differences in the charged amino acids local to specific haem groups. First estimates of reorganization free energies λ yield a range consistent with expectations for partially solvent-exposed cofactors, and reveal an activation energy range surmountable for electron flow. Future work will aim at increasing the accuracy of λ with polarizable forcefield dynamics and quantum chemical energy gap calculations, as well as quantum chemical computation of electronic coupling matrix elements.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1198-203. DOI:10.1042/BST20120139 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shewanella species are isolated from the oxic/anoxic regions of seawater and aquatic sediments where redox conditions fluctuate in time and space. Colonization of these environments is by virtue of flexible respiratory chains, many of which are notable for the ability to reduce extracellular substrates including the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) contained in oxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 serves as a model organism to consider the biochemical basis of this flexibility. In the present paper, we summarize the various systems that serve to branch the respiratory chain of S. oneidensis MR-1 in order that electrons from quinol oxidation can be delivered the various terminal electron acceptors able to support aerobic and anaerobic growth. This serves to highlight several unanswered questions relating to the regulation of respiratory electron transport in Shewanella and the central role(s) of the tetrahaem-containing quinol dehydrogenase CymA in that process.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1217-21. DOI:10.1042/BST20120150 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decahaem cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system has been developed that contains Methyl Viologen as an internalized electron carrier and valinomycin as a membrane-associated cation exchanger. These proteoliposomes can be used as a model system to investigate MtrCAB function.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1257-60. DOI:10.1042/BST20120116 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Liang Shi, Kevin M Rosso, John M Zachara, James K Fredrickson
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    ABSTRACT: Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), key components of the Mtr (i.e. metal-reducing) pathway exist in all strains of metal-reducing Shewanella characterized. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multihaem c-Cyts (c-type cytochromes), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner membrane to Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes has identified homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The apparent widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in both Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggests a bidirectional electron transfer role, and emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron-transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of iron. The organizational and electron-transfer characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by micro-organisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1261-7. DOI:10.1042/BST20120098 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • David J Richardson, James K Fredrickson, John M Zachara
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    ABSTRACT: Many bacterial and archaeal species can couple growth to the respiratory reduction or oxidation of insoluble mineral oxides of transition metals. These solid substrates are abundant electron sinks and sources for life on Earth, but, since they are insoluble in water, they cannot enter the bacterial cells. So, to exploit these electron sinks and sources, specific respiratory electron-transfer mechanisms must overcome the physical limitations associated with electron transfer between a microbe and extracellular metal oxides. Recent microbiological, geochemical, biochemical, spectroscopic and structural work is beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanism and impacts of electron transfer at the microbe-mineral interface from a nanometre to kilometre scale. The research field is attracting attention in applied quarters from those with interests in nanowires, microbial fuel cells, bioremediation and microbial cell factories.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2012; 40(6):1163-6. DOI:10.1042/BST20120242 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (L-HCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with (13)C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.
    Metabolic Engineering 09/2012; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.ymben.2012.08.004 · 6.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
857.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2014
    • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
      • • Biological Sciences Division
      • • Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory
      Richland, Washington, United States
  • 2013
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Purdue University
      • School of Chemical Engineering
      ウェストラファイエット, Indiana, United States
    • University of East Anglia
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Norwich, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Biology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2008
    • Argonne National Laboratory
      Lemont, Illinois, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Oklahoma
      • Institute for Environmental Genomics
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2005
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Environmental Sciences Division
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States
  • 1989–2005
    • Florida State University
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Biological Science
      Tallahassee, Florida, United States
    • University of Idaho
      Moscow, Idaho, United States
  • 2003
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Pathology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1985–1995
    • Washington State University
      • • Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
      • • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Pullman, WA, United States