[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial hypertension is an established risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, and physical exertion may trigger the onset of such an event. The mechanisms involved include the rupture of a small, inflamed, coronary plaque and the activation of thrombogenic factors. Blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment has been associated with beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and thrombosis at rest and during exercise. This prospective study sought to compare the effect of different antihypertensive drugs on the inflammatory and thrombotic response during exercise. A total of 60 never-treated hypertensive patients were randomized to an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)- or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB)-based regimen. Patients with inflammatory or coronary artery disease were excluded. Six months after pharmaceutical BP normalization, the patients underwent a maximal treadmill exercise testing. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), white blood cells (WBC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total fibrinogen (TF) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels, as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity were measured in blood samples taken while the patients were at rest and during peak exercise. All of these biomarkers increased with exercise, except PAI-1, which decreased (P<0.05 for the difference between resting and peak exercise for all biomarkers). The ARB group had less marked (P<0.05) exercise-induced changes than the CCB group in hsCRP (5.8% vs. 7.7%), SAA (4.2% vs. 7.2%), WBC (46.8% vs. 52.6%), TNF-α (16.3% vs. 24.3%), TF (9.5% vs. 16.9%) and PAI-1 (-9.5% vs. -12.3%) but a similar (P=NS) change in IL-6 (39.4% vs. 38.6%) and vWF (29.2% vs. 28.6%). In conclusion, ARBs are most likely more effective than CCBs at suppressing the exercise-induced acute phase response. Potential protection against exercise-related coronary events remains to be elucidated.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 6 September 2012; doi:10.1038/hr.2012.134.
Hypertension Research 09/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between systolic and diastolic nocturnal blood pressure (BP) values and office BP values, as well as parameters of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, in patients with hypertension. In addition, we compared nocturnal hypertensives with nocturnal normotensives regarding their demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, as well as other data from 24-hour BP monitoring.
The study included 182 consecutive patients who had newly diagnosed, never treated, uncomplicated arterial hypertension. Blood samples were obtained from all patients for the determination of glycaemic and lipidaemic profiles. All underwent a complete echocardiographic examination, including tissue Doppler imaging, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and determination of the augmentation index of reflected waves (Aix@75), as well as 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. The population was divided into nocturnal normotensives (NN, n=77) and nocturnal hypertensives (NH, n=105, nocturnal BP >120/70 mmHg).
Although the NH did not differ from the NN as regards the classical cardiovascular risk factors, they showed an excessive inotropic response to exercise (61.9% vs. 22.7%, p=0.028), higher levels of serum uric acid (5.5 ± 1.56 mg/dl vs. 4.7 ± 1.36 mg/dl, p=0.003), as well as greater arterial stiffness, as expressed by a higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (8.6 ± 1.6 m/s vs. 7.9 ± 1.4 m/s, p=0.009), and a greater carotid intima-media thickness (0.74 ± 0.17 mm vs. 0.68 ± 0.15 mm, p=0.007). In addition, although the two groups did not differ significantly as regards office BP values and did not show strong correlations between nocturnal and office BP, both nocturnal diastolic and, especially, systolic BP showed strong correlations with levels of serum uric acid and with subclinical lesions in the heart, central aorta, peripheral vessels, and renal vasculature.
Nocturnal BP is poorly correlated with office BP values. However, the presence of nocturnal hypertension is associated with morphological and functional disturbances of the cardiovascular net. 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring is an essential tool for revealing this subgroup of hypertensive patients who are at increased cardiovascular risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise improves the clinical outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the ideal exercise duration for each patient remains unclear.
To investigate the effects of exercise duration on arterial elastic properties and antioxidant/pro-oxidant mechanisms in patients with CAD. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS: Sixty male patients with CAD were randomised into two groups, and underwent exercise for 30 min or 60 min in a crossover design with 2 weeks' wash-out period. In all participants aortic and radial blood pressures (BP) and arterial elastic properties (augmentation index (AIx)/pulse wave velocity (PWV)) were determined at baseline and 24 h after exercise. Plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 and SOD2 levels were also measured.
Exercise had no effect on aortic and radial BP (p=NS for all). Walking for 30 min improved AIx (from 33.79 ± 0.91% to 31.73 ± 0.86%, p<0.001) and PWV (from 9.26 ± 0.95 m/s to 9.06 ± 0.21 m/s, p<0.001), while exercise for 60 min had adverse effects on vascular stiffness (for AIx: from 33.37 ± 0.93% to 33.73 ± 1.05%, p=NS and for PWV: from 9.25 ± 0.19 m/s to 9.37 ± 0.21 m/s, p < 0.05 mainly in older patients). Exercise for 60 min was associated with a significant 20% increase in MDA levels (p<0.05). Exercise had no effects on SOD1 levels, however it significantly increased SOD2 levels after 30 min (from 2.26 ± 0.22 ng/mL to 2.36 ± 0.18 ng/mL, p < 0.05) but not after 60 min (p=NS). Conclusion Shorter exercise duration was associated with favourable antioxidant and vascular effects, while longer exercise blunted these beneficial effects and was accompanied by adverse effects on vascular function, mainly in older coronary patients. Further studies are required to explore the hypothesis that a more individualised approach to the selection of the appropriate exercise programme should be considered for patients with CAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In symptomatic patients and in patients with increased cardiovascular risk, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is reliably detected with ankle-brachial index (ABI) values < 0.9. However, the clinical significance of low normal ABI (1-1.09) in essential hypertensive (EH) patients remains unknown.
Journal of Hypertension 01/2010; 28. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Leptin is a peptide hormone that is primarily synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue whose principal action is the control of appetite and energy balance. Plasma Leptin concentration (PLC) is increased in obesity and correlate strongly with percentage body fat in both genders. Aim of the present study was to evaluate how abdominal fat compartments affects PLC in overweight essential hypertensive's.
Journal of Hypertension 01/2010; 28. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the type of left ventricular (LV) geometry is associated with left atrial (LA) size as determined either by LA diameter or by volume, indexed for body surface area, in essential hypertensives. A total of 339 consecutive, untreated, hypertensives (aged 51.8 years, 234 males) underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and estimation of LA diameter and volume, as well as LV structure and function by echocardiography. LV hypertrophy was present in 130 (38.3%) patients whereas normal geometry (LV-NG), concentric remodeling (LV-CR), concentric hypertrophy (LV-CH) and eccentric hypertrophy (LV-EH) represented 34.5, 27.1, 25.7 and 12.7%, respectively. Patients with either LV-CH or LV-EH had increased LA diameter index compared with those with either LV-NG (by 1.1 mm m(-2), P<0.01 and 1.4 mm m(-2), P=0.003, respectively) or LV-CR (by 1.3 mm m(-2), P=0.003 and 1.6 mm m(-2), P=0.001, respectively). Similarly, patients with either LV-CH or LV-EH had significantly increased LA volume index compared with those with either LV-NG (by 3.2 ml m(-2), P<0.001 and 3.4 ml m(-2), P<0.005, respectively) or LV-CR (by 4.5 and 4.7 ml m(-2), respectively, P<0.001 for both). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of both LA volume and diameter index were LV mass index, 24-h pulse pressure and E/Em.LA size assessed either by its diameter or by volume is closely related only to LV mass index and not to any specific LV geometric pattern in the early stages of essential hypertension.
Journal of human hypertension 03/2009; 23(10):674-9. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 31-year old woman with essential hypertension grade III and history of branch retinal vein occlusion in the setting of hyperhomocysteinemia due to homozygous MTHFR gene mutation and elevated Lp(a). The patient was treated successfully with antihypertensive treatment, acetylsalicylic acid and multivitamin complex supplementation.
International journal of cardiology 02/2009; 143(3):e42-4. · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been identified as a reliable predictor of cardiac mortality, correlated with autonomic tone. In a model of sequential exercise testings, we investigated the reproducibility of HRR and the association between HRR modification and myocardial adaptation to ischemia.
We studied 128 patients (mean age 62 +/- 9 years, 83% males) with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) and a first positive exercise testing, who agreed to undergo a second exercise testing after 24 hours.
HRR was increased from 25 +/- 10 beats/min at the first exercise testing to 30 +/- 13 beats/min at the second exercise testing (P < 0.001). Thereafter, participants were divided into two groups: Group I comprised 88 patients who presented augmentation of the HRR in the first compared to the second exercise testing, while group II comprised 40 patients who presented unchanged or reduced HRR. The rate-pressure product (RPP) at 1 mm ST-segment depression (ischemic threshold) at the second compared to the first exercise testing were significantly improved in group I patients (2345 +/- 3429 mmHg/min), while it was worsened in group II patients (-630 +/- 2510 mmHg/min) (P < 0.001).
In a model of sequential exercise testings, myocardial adaptation to exercise-induced ischemia was associated with favorable modification of HRR.
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 10/2008; 13(4):364-70. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accuracy of treadmill exercise testing to detect coronary artery disease is limited in women. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether QRS score can improve the accuracy of treadmill exercise testing in women.
The study population consisted of 114 women with angina-like symptoms, who underwent both treadmill exercise testing and coronary angiography. The impact of QRS score on the standard ST-segment based diagnostic ability of treadmill exercise testing to detect coronary artery disease was studied.
Incorporation of QRS score in standard ST-segment diagnostic criteria significantly enhanced sensitivity (from 59 to 80%), specificity (from 40 to 94%) and diagnostic accuracy (from 50 to 87%) of treadmill exercise testing. The QRS score was shown to reduce significantly the false-positive results from 60 to 6%. Furthermore, QRS score accuracy was correlated with the extent of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic ability of QRS score was greater both among patients with normal and impaired systolic function of the left ventricle.
QRS score can improve the limited diagnostic accuracy of treadmill exercise testing in women, by predominantly decreasing the high prevalence of false-positive results.