[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate some of the mechanisms involved in the activation of the immune system in patients with advanced-stage cancer (n = 7) who received an autologous dendritic cell vaccine. We examined the immune response mediated by macrophages (CD14+), natural killer cells (CD56+), and B lymphocytes (CD19+) by flow cytometry and assessed the expression of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12), Th2 (IL-4), and Treg (TGF-β) cytokines by flow cytometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CD14+ TNF-α+ population was significantly increased (P < 0.04) when patients received the vaccine; IL-2 expression in both NK cells and in B lymphocytes was increased after a transient initial increase showed a nearly significant decrease (P < 0.07 and P < 0.06 respectively), whereas the CD19+ and CD56+ populations did not show significant changes. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy led to increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-12 and reduced secretion of TGF-β. In conclusion, it is likely that the autologous dendritic cell vaccine stimulated the immune cells from the peripheral blood of patients with cancer and generally increased the production of Th1 cytokines, which are related to immunomodulatory responses against cancer.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2013; 7:165-72.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to seek evidence for the production of IL-12 by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in in vitro and ex vivo trials. We performed in vitro trials with spleen cells from mice subjected to carcinogenesis, as well as ex vivo trials with cells obtained from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and cancer patients. We were able to verify a significantly increased expression of IL-12 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes from mice and patients with tumors, compared to controls. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether this difference is related to being in a chronic disease state or whether it is an attempt by the immune system to produce an anti-tumor response, since T lymphocytes from healthy donors were not able to produce IL-12 when in contact with polyclonal stimuli. We concluded that, in cancer, T helper cells are capable of synthesizing IL-12, raising the question of whether we are faced with another profile, Th12.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2013; 7:75-81.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify placental and umbilical cord macroscopic changes and correlate them to maternal and fetal clinical events in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP).
The authors examined 150 placentas, 30 from each HDP group, totaling 120, and 30 from the control group. All placentas and umbilical cords were examined, recorded, and photographed.
The mean placental weight in the control group (526.3 +/- 95.6 g) was greater than in the HDP (435.5 +/- 43.1 g). Calciphylaxis was the most common macroscopic change found in the control and HDP groups in 27 (90%) and 118 cases (98.3%), respectively.
Pregnant women with HDP were relatively younger. In addition, due to low blood flow seen in HDP, the macroscopic changes found included lower placental weight, calciphylaxis in the maternal surface, and fibrin in the fetal surface. Because of all complications associated, most women with HDP had preterm infants who developed respiratory problems and had shorter umbilical cords.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study sought to identify macroscopic placental changes associated with clinical conditions in women with or without diabetes and their newborns.
The study population consisted of 62 pregnant women clinically diagnosed with diabetes and 62 healthy women (control group).
Among the subjects with diabetes, 43 women (69.3%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 15 had diabetes mellitus I (24.2%), and four had diabetes mellitus II (6.5%). The mean age of the women studied was 28.5 ± 5.71 years, and the mean gestational age of the diabetic women was 38.51 weeks. Of the 62 placentas from diabetic pregnancies, 49 (79%) maternal surfaces and 59 (95.2%) fetal surfaces showed abnormalities, including calcium and fibrin deposits, placental infarction, hematoma, and fibrosis. A statistical association was found between newborn gender and fetal and maternal placental changes (p = 0.002). The mean weight of the newborns studied was 3,287 ± 563 g for women with diabetes mellitus, 3,205 ± 544 g for those with gestational diabetes mellitus, 3,563 ± 696 g forthose with diabetes mellitus II, and 3,095 ± 451 g forthose with diabetes mellitus I.
Infarction, hematoma, calcification, and fibrin were found on the maternal and fetal placental surfaces in women with diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes and post-term infants had more calcium deposits on the maternal placental surface as compared to those with type I and type II diabetes.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 10/2012; 67(10):1203-8. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate cytokine synthesis by lymphocytes in the presence of mammary tumors and the interaction with physical activity. For this study, we used 56 female Balb/c, 8-week-old, virgin mice with a body mass between 20 and 30 g. The mice were divided into four groups: a no tumor/nontrained control group; a no tumor/trained group subjected to physical training of swimming in water (30±4°C) for 45 min, five times per week for 8 weeks; a tumor/nontrained (sedentary) group in which the animals received 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene [(DMBA) 1 mg/ml weekly for 6 weeks)]; and a tumor/trained group in which animals were subjected to the aforementioned DMBA tumor induction and swim training protocols. After the experimental period, immune cells were collected from spleen cell specimens, placed in culture, and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The presence of cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD4, and CD8 markers and the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, transforming growth factor β, and tumor necrosis factor α cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Physical activity increased the quantities of lymphocytes producing interferon γ, IL-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor α and decreased the quantities of lymphocytes and macrophages expressing IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β. In contrast, tumor induction, in the absence of swim training, reduced Th1 cytokine levels while increasing the presence of Th2 cytokines and Treg cells. Physical activity promoted reductions in the incidence of tumor development and promoted immune system polarization toward an antitumor Th1 response pattern profile.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 09/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that patients with cervical intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia have reduced levels of Th1 cytokines, and increased levels of Th2 cytokines. Thus, the aim of this study was to delineate the immunological profile associated with lesion progression. Biopsies were obtained from 28 patients with low grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 53 patients with high grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 25 patients with invasive cancer (CA), and 20 healthy controls. Levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 were then assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA for each biopsy sample. For LSILs, higher levels of Th1 cytokines were detected, while HSILs were associated with a Th2 cytokine profile. In contrast, CA tissues were associated with the strongest expression of a Treg cytokine profile. In conclusion the most important contribution of these work is identification of the Treg cytokine profile in HPV progression lesions and in combination, these results suggested that tumor progression is dependent on suppression of cellular immunity.
Human immunology 06/2012; 73(9):920-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade II-III is being diagnosed in younger women and, because of the reproductive age range for women and the habits associated with a modern lifestyle, is now affecting a broad age range. Surgical treatment for CIN has been associated with premature amenorrhea, low birth weight, and premature labor and birth. It is therefore imperative to develop clinical treatments for CIN, such as conservative treatment with interferons. The object of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of cytokines (IFN- g, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF β) in the serum of patients with an initial diagnosis of CIN II-III.
Ten patients with CIN-CIN II (60%, n = 6) and CIN III (40%, n = 4), 23 to 51 years of age and who had not received any prior treatments, were evaluated. The patients were given 3 million/UI (per cm2 of colposcopic lesion) of human recombinant IFN-α 2b by intralesional administration (18 applications on alternate days). Before treatment, in the 6th, 12th, and 18th applications, blood was collected from the patients for cytokine analysis using ELISA.
Half of the patients had a good pathologic response; the other half, all of whom were smokers, had therapeutic failure. The average concentration of IL-12 (pg/ml) in the serum of patients who responded well to therapy was elevated from the 12th and 18th application of IFN-α 2b compared to patients who experienced therapeutic failure: 1804.0 ± 1020 vs 391.2 ± 722.3 and 1738.0 ± 2426.0 vs 448.5 ± 407.2, respectively, P <0.05.
CIN II-III treated with intralesional IFN-α 2b achieved a good response in non-smoking patients and was associated with an increase in IL-12 serum levels.