There are different histiocytic diseases in dogs that are characterized by the proliferation of histiocytic cells (macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells). Histiocytic diseases can be devided into neoplastic (cutaneous histiocytoma complex, histiocytic sarcoma, dendritic cell leukaemia) and reactive forms (reactive histiocytosis, haemophagocytic syndrome). All subtypes of the cutaneous histiocytoma complex (cutaneous histiocytoma, metastatic histiocytoma and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis) are of Langerhans' cell origin. Histiocytoma, which is a solitary tumour of the skin in young dogs, shows spontaneous regression in most cases. Occasionally, metastasis to lymph nodes can be seen (metastatic histiocytoma). Only one dog with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis has been described and was euthanized. Histiocytic sarcoma, which arises from myeloid dendritic cells, can be classified as localised histiocytic sarcoma or disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. Another form of histiocytic sarcoma - haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma - is derived from macrophages. Histiocytic sarcoma displays a very aggressive clinical course and has a poor prognosis. Breed predispositions have been reported for the disseminated and haemophagocytic form of histiocytic sarcoma in Bernese mountain dogs, Rottweilers and varoiusretrievers. In contrast, reactive histiocytosis (cutaneous and systemic forms) develops by reactive proliferation of interstitial dendritic cells. In systemic histiocytosis, breed predilections are similar to histiocytic sarcoma. Haemophagocytic syndrome develops as a consequence of proliferation of activated macrophages in different tissues. Prognosis in general is moderate to poor and depends on the origin of the underlying disease process.
Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere 01/2011; 39(3):176-90. · 0.47 Impact Factor