[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented.
Korean journal of anesthesiology. 07/2014; 67(1):61-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericyte loss is an early characteristic change in diabetic retinopathy. Despite accumulating evidences that hyperglycemia induced angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) has a central role in pericyte loss, the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. This study was to investigate the role of Ang2 in pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy. We demonstrated that pericyte loss occurred with Ang2 increase in the diabetic mice retina, and the source of Ang2 could be endothelial cell. Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis via p53 pathway under high glucose while Ang2 alone did not induce apoptosis. Integrin, not Tie-2 receptor, was involved for Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose as an Ang2 receptor. High glucose changed integrin expression pattern which increased integrin α3 and β1 in pericyte. Furthermore, in vitro, Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis was effectively attenuated via p53 suppression by blocking integrin α3 and β1. In vivo, while intravitreal injection of Ang2 induced pericyte loss in C57/BL6 mice retina, intravitreal injection of anti-integrin α3 and β1 antibodies attenuated Ang2 induced pericyte loss. Taken together, Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose via α3β1 integrin. Glycemic control or blocking Ang2/integrin signaling could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent pericyte loss in early diabetic retinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular deposit of amyloid beta (Aβ) is a common pathologic feature in both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease, but the role of intracellular Aβ on the tight junction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Aβ expression and its role on the outer blood retinal barrier in the retina of 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The retina of 5XFAD mice showed the pathologic features of AMD with intracellular Aβ in the RPE. As intracellular Aβ accumulated, zonular occludens-1 and occludin were markedly attenuated and lost their integrity as tight junctions in the RPE of 5XFAD mice. Also, Aβ42 uptake by ARPE-19 cells induced the tight junction breakdown of zonular occludens-1 and occludin without cell death. These results implicate that intracellular Aβ42 could play a role in the breakdown of the outer blood retinal barrier in 5XFAD mice. Thus, we suggested that 5XFAD mice could be a mouse model of dry AMD with regard to the Aβ42 related pathology.
Neurobiology of aging 03/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal neovascularization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common cause of blindness for children. Despite evidence that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α -VEGF axis is associated with the pathogenesis of ROP, the inhibitors of HIF-1α have not been established as a therapeutic target in the control of ROP pathophysiology. We investigated the hypothesis that degradation of HIF-1α as a master regulator of angiogenesis in hypoxic condition, using β-lapachone, would confer protection against hypoxia-induced retinopathy without affecting physiological vascular development in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. The effects of β-lapachone were examined after intraocular injection in mice with OIR. Intraocular administration of β-lapachone resulted in significant reduction in hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization without retinal toxicity or perturbation of developmental retinal angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in OIR is associated with pathological neovascularization, not physiological angiogenesis. Thus, strategies blocking HIF-1α in the developing eye in the pathological hypoxia could serve as a novel therapeutic target for ROP.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 02/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
In an attempt to begin ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI) treatment more quickly(referred to as door-to-balloon time;DTB) by minimizing preventable delays in ECG interpretation, cardiac catheterization laboratory(CCL) activation was changed from activation by the emergency physician(code heart I) to activation by a single page if the ECG is interpreted as STEMI by the ECG machine(ECG machine auto-interpretation)(code heart II).
We sought to determine the impact of ECG machine auto-interpretation on CCL activation.
The study period was from June 2010 to May 2012(From June 2011 to November 2011: code heart I; From December 2011 to May 2012: Code heart II). All patients aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed with STEMI were evaluated for enrolment. Patients who experienced the code heart system were also included.
DTB before and after code heart system were compared through a retrospective chart review. In addition, to determine the appropriateness of the activation, we compared coronary angiography(CAG) performance rate and percentage of STEMI between code heart I and II.
After the code heart system, the mean DTB time was significantly decreased(before; 96.51 ± 65.60 min, After ; 65.40 ± 26.40 min, P = 0.043).
The STEMI diagnosis and the CAG performance rates were significantly lower in the code heart II group than in the code heart I group without difference in DTB time.
CCL activation by ECG machine auto-interpretation doesn’t reduce DTB time and often unnecessarily activates the code heart system compared with EP-initiated activation. This system therefore decreases the appropriateness of CCL activation.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 01/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective observational case series of fifty-one consecutive patients referred to the eye clinic with acute-stage Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 1995 to 2011 examines the effect of early treatment with a systemic corticosteroid or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the ocular outcomes in patients with SJS or TEN.
All patients were classified by age (≤18 years vs. >18 years) and analyzed by treatment modality and early intervention with systemic corticosteroids (≤5 days), IVIG (≤6 days), or amniotic membrane graft transplantation (AMT) (≤15 days). The main outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and ocular involvement scores (OIS, 0-12), which were calculated based on the presence of superficial punctate keratitis, epithelial defect, conjunctivalization, neovascularization, corneal opacity, keratinization, hyperemia, symblepharon, trichiasis, mucocutaneous junction involvement, meibomian gland involvement, and punctal damage.
The mean logMAR and OIS scores at the initial visit were not significantly different in the pediatric group (logMAR = 0.44, OIS = 2.76, n = 17) or the adult group (logMAR = 0.60, OIS = 2.21, n = 34). At the final follow-up, the logMAR and OIS had improved significantly in the adult group (p = 0.0002, p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the pediatric group. Early intervention with IVIG or corticosteroids significantly improved the mean BCVA and OIS in the adult group (p = 0.043 and p = 0.024, respectively for IVIG; p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively for corticosteroid). AMT was found to be associated with a significantly improved BCVA or OIS in the late treatment group or the group with a better initial OIS (p = 0.043 and p = 0.043, respectively for BCVA; p = 0.042 and p = 0.041, respectively for OIS).
Our findings suggest that patients with SJS or TEN who are aged 18 years or less have poorer ocular outcomes than older patients and that early treatment with steroid or immunoglobulin therapy improves ocular outcomes.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2013; 27(5):331-340.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 37-year-old man with a high myopic keratoconus eye that was treated with a posterior chamber toric implantable collamer lens (ICL) in Korea. The patient had a history of contact lens intolerance and did not want to have a corneal transplantation. His uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle corrected visual acuity were 0.02 and 0.4 in the left eye, respectively. Preoperatively, the manifest refraction was -12.0 -3.5 × 30A. Postoperatively, the manifest refraction was -1.75 × 180A. UCVA improved markedly after implantation. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed during 20 months of follow-up. Toric ICL implantation may be a possible alternative surgical option for the visual rehabilitation of high myopic astigmatism in keratoconus patients with rigid gas permeable contact lens intolerance and in patients who do not want to get a corneal transplant.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2013; 27(3):211-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the association between cytomegalovirus and idiopathic chronic recurrent anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension. Methods: Medical records of 9 consecutive immunocompetent Korean patients with chronic recurrent anterior uveitis and ocular hypertension were retrospectively reviewed. Nested polymerase chain reaction was performed on aqueous humor samples for the herpes family, including cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Results: In 7 (77.8%) of 9 patients, aqueous samples were culture-positive for cytomegalovirus (n = 6), Epstein-Barr virus (n = 2), and/or varicella zoster virus (n = 2). Two patients with cytomegalovirus had corneal endotheliitis, and 2 patients with varicella zoster virus had sectoral iris atrophy. Conclusion: Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of idiopathic chronic unilateral anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension in immunocompetent Korean patients. The authors suggest that performing polymerase chain reaction on aqueous samples is useful in diagnosing cytomegalovirus in these patients.
Ocular immunology and inflammation 03/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 26 year old, healthy, 41 week primiparous woman received a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and experienced paraplegia 11 hours later after a vaginal delivery. This was thought to be the result of complications from PCEA but there was no specific abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine. On an electromyography (EMG) study performed 15 days following delivery, signs of tibial neuropathy were present and peripheral nerve injury during vaginal delivery was suspected. Motor weakness and hypoesthesia of both lower extremities improved rapidly, but a decrease in the desire to urinate or defecate, followed by urinary incontinence and constipation persisted, We suspected the sacral plexus had been severely damaged during vaginal delivery. Seven months later, the patient's conditions improved but had not fully recovered.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 02/2013; 64(2):175-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea recently designated cerebrovascularspecified centers (CSCs) to improve the regional stroke care system for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. This study was performed to evaluate the changes in the flow of AIS patients between hospitals and to describe the role of the Emergency Medical Information Center (EMIC) after the designation of the CSCs. Data for coordination of interhospital transfers by the EMIC were reviewed for 6 months before and after designation of the CSCs. The data included the success or failure rate, the time used for coordination of interhospital transfer, and the changes in the interhospital transfer pattern between transfer-requesting and transfer-accepting hospitals. The total number of requests for interhospital transfer increased from 198 to 244 after designation of the CSCs. The median time used for coordination decreased from 8.0 minutes to 4.0 minutes (p<0.001). The success rate of coordination increased from 88.9% to 96.7% (p<0.001). The proportion of requests by CSCs decreased from 3.5% to 0.4% (p=0.017). However, the proportion of acceptance by non-CSC hospitals increased from 15.9% to 25.8% (p=0.015). With the designation of CSCs, the EMIC could coordinate interhospital transfers more quickly. However, AIS patients are more dispersed to CSC and non-CSC hospitals, which might be because the CSCs still do not have sufficient resources to cover the increasing volume of AIS patients and non-CSC hospitals have changed their policies. Further studies based on patients' outcome are needed to determine the adequate type of interhospital transfer for AIS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several previous studies have suggested the improvement of atopic dermatitis (AD) in response to special fabrics. In particular, beneficial effects have been reported, following the use of anion textiles.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an anion textile in patients suffering from AD.
We compared an anion textile with a pure cotton textile. Fifty-two atopic patients (n=52) were enrolled and divided into two groups. The patients in the test (n=25) and control (n=19) groups wore undergarments made of an anion textile or pure cotton over a period of 4 weeks. The overall severity of disease was evaluated using the SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, whereas, the treatment efficacy was measured using a Tewameter® (Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany), Mexameter® (Courage & Khazaka) and Corneo meter® (Courage & Khazaka).
At the end of the study, a significant decrease in the SCORAD index was observed among the patients with AD in the test group (mean SCORAD decreased from 47.2 to 36.1). Similarly, improvements in the mean transepidermal water loss, skin erythema and stratum corneum hydration were significantly greater among the patients with AD in the test group than in the control group.
Anion textiles may be used to significantly improve the objective and subjective symptoms of AD, and are similar in terms of comfort to cotton textiles. The use of anion textiles may be beneficial in the management of patients with AD.
Annals of Dermatology 11/2012; 24(4):438-43. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; n = 133) and their clinicopathologic features and age-matched controls (n = 321) using direct sequencing. PTC patients were divided into subgroups according to size, number, location, extrathyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis. The two SNPs of TLR2 gene were not associated with the development of PTC. In clinical analysis, two SNPs were associated with location of cancer (rs3804099, P = 0.032, OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.96 in log-additive model; rs3804100, P = 0.039, OR, 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22-0.96 in codominant1 model; P = 0.018, OR, 0.42, 95% CI, 0.21-0.87 in dominant model; P = 0.011, OR, 0.46, 95% CI, 0.25-0.85 in log-additive model). The allele frequencies of two SNPs also showed significant associations with location of cancer (rs3804099, P = 0.046, OR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-0.99 and rs3804100, P = 0.019, OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.90). However, two SNPs were not associated with the clinicopathologic features of PTC. It is suggested that TLR2 polymorphisms may contribute to the clinicopathologic features of PTC, especially the PTC in both lobes.
Journal of Korean medical science 11/2012; 27(11):1333-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of luteolin against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced retinal neovascularization. Methods: The toxicity of luteolin was evaluated through modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining in the retina of C57BL/6J. After intravitreal injection of luteolin in the mouse model of ROP, retinal neovascularization was examined by fluorescence angiography and vessel counting. Anti-angiogenic activity of luteolin was evaluated by VEGF-induced migration and tube formation assay. The effect of luteolin on t-BH-induced ROS production was measured with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The effect of luteolin on t-BH induced and hypoxia-induced VEGF transcription and expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: Luteolin never affected the viability of HRMECs up to 10 μM, where luteolin never induce any structural change in all retinal layers. Luteolin inhibited retinal neovascularization in the mouse model of ROP. Moreover, VEGF-induced migration and tube formation were significantly decreased by co-treatment of luteolin. Luteolin attenuated VEGF transcription via blockade of t-BH induced ROS production. Luteolin suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF expression via attenuating hypoxia inducible factor 1 α expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that luteolin could be a potent anti-angiogenic agent for retinal neovascularization, which is related to anti-oxidative activity to block ROS production and to subsequently suppress VEGF expression and the pro-angiogenic effect of VEGF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the outcomes of acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon after various surgeries in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients.
A retrospective review of the medical records of 53 TAO patients with acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon between October 1999 and June 2011 was performed. Data were collected on demographics, type of lower eyelid epiblepharon, the detailed surgical history such as orbital decompression, retraction repair, or epiblepharon repair and surgical outcomes including follow-up period, recurrence of epiblepharon, and post-operative complications.
Among the 53 TAO patients with acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon, 25 eyes of 17 patients underwent surgical management; 6 eyes of orbital decompression, 1 eye of orbital decompression followed by retraction repair, 2 eyes of orbital decompression followed by epiblepharon repair, 6 eyes of lower eyelid retraction repair, and 10 eyes of epiblepharon repair. Twenty two lower eyelid epiblepharons (88%) were resolved after final surgical treatment without complication during mean 16.2 months (SD, ±29.9 months) of follow up period; three of 6 epiblepharons that remained after orbital decompression underwent subsequent surgical management of retraction repair or epiblepharon repair, and epiblepharons were well-corrected. Mean amount of lower eyelid retraction was decreased from 1.68 mm (SD, ±1.17 mm) to 0.29 mm (SD, ±0.44 mm) after surgery, regardless of the type of surgery (n = 25, p < 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test).
Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon of TAO should be managed sequentially according to the general serial order of surgical managements in TAO; orbital decompression, correction of lower eyelid retraction and epiblepharon repair. Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon was well resolved after surgical management in consecutive order, especially after repair of the lower eyelid retraction with a graft, or lower eyelid epiblepharon repair. Decreased lower eyelid retraction with a resolution of epiblepharon after surgery implied that lower eyelid retraction was associated with lower eyelid epiblepharon.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2012; 26(5):319-23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical manifestations and visual prognosis of retinal artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections.
Retrospective, noncomparative case series.
Setting. Institutional. Study Population. Twelve consecutive patients with retinal artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Main Outcome Measures. Filler materials, injection sites, best-corrected visual acuities, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings, and associated ocular and systemic manifestations.
Seven, 2, and 3 patients had ophthalmic, central retinal, and branch retinal artery occlusions, respectively. Injected materials included autologous fat (7 cases), hyaluronic acid (4 cases), and collagen (1 case), and injection sites were the glabellar region (7 cases), nasolabial fold (4 cases), or both (1 case). Injected autologous fat was associated with worse final best-corrected visual acuity than the other materials. All patients with ophthalmic artery occlusion had ocular pain and no improvement in best-corrected visual acuity. Optical coherence tomography revealed thinner and less vascular choroids in eyes with ophthalmic artery occlusion than in adjacent normal eyes. Concomitant brain infarction developed in 2 cases each of central retinal artery occlusion and ophthalmic artery occlusion. Phthisis developed in 1 case of ophthalmic artery occlusion.
Cosmetic filler injections into the glabellar region or nasolabial fold can cause retinal artery occlusion. Iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion is associated with painful blindness, a thin choroid, brain infarction, and poor visual outcomes, particularly when autologous fat is used. Ophthalmic examination and systematic brain magnetic resonance imaging should be performed in patients with ocular pain after such injections.
American journal of ophthalmology 07/2012; 154(4):653-662.e1. · 3.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and compare the pathogenic features of acquired and congenital epiblepharon.
Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series, cross-sectional study.
A total of 494 Korean patients with TAO and 845 Korean patients with congenital lower eyelid epiblepharon.
The medical records were reviewed, and the presence, location, and extent of epiblepharon were identified. Clinical features of TAO (lower eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, and elevation limitation) were compared between patients with TAO with and without epiblepharon. Acquired epiblepharon was classified into 3 types according to the location and extent. The prevalence of epiblepharon types was determined and evaluated for associations with TAO clinical features. Comparisons were made between the prevalence of epiblepharon types in acquired and congenital epiblepharon.
Prevalence, location, and extent of epiblepharon; association with clinical features of TAO; and difference from congenital epiblepharon.
An acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon was found in 42 (8.5%) of 494 patients with TAO. The mean age of patients with TAO with epiblepharon (34.2±13.5 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with TAO without epiblepharon (46.5±14.1 years) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction (0.78±1.11 mm) was more severe in patients with TAO with epiblepharon than in patients without epiblepharon (0.30±0.73 mm) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction was more severe in diffuse-type acquired epiblepharon than in central-type epiblepharon (P = 0.012). Elevation limitation was more severe in central-type acquired epiblepharon than in medial-type epiblepharon (P = 0.001). The occurrence of central-type epiblepharon was higher in TAO-associated acquired epiblepharon (20 eyelids, 30.8%) than in congenital epiblepharon (27 eyelids, 1.9%, P = 0.000).
Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon is one of the clinical features of patients with TAO. The association between lower eyelid retraction and acquired epiblepharon may lead to a better understanding of the cause of acquired epiblepharon in patients with TAO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Luteolin, a flavonoid isolated from the flowers of Platycodon grandiflorum (balloon flower, Campanulaceae), has been examined with regard to the inhibition of apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells under oxidative stress. Luteolin from P. grandiflorum protected human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. The toxicity of the effective luteolin (1 μM) was very low. Luteolin significantly inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human RPE cells under t-BOOH induced oxidative stress. T-BOOH induced activation of caspase-3 was reduced by 1 μM luteolin, from 1.7 fold to 1.1 fold, compared with untreated control (P < 0.05). These results suggest that luteolin from P. grandiflorum may be used as a potential cytoprotective agent for oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in RPE cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) were associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We also assessed the relationships between IL-1B SNPs and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC patients. Ninety-three PTC patients and 324 controls were recruited. The patients with PTC were dichotomized and compared with respect to the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC. Seven SNPs in the IL-1B gene were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing. Four SNPs (rs1143627, rs3136558, rs1143633, and rs1143643) in the IL-1B gene were significantly associated with PTC (p < 0.05). In clinicopathologic features, 3 SNPs (rs1143630, rs1143633, and rs1143643) showed a strong relationship with lymph node metastasis of PTC. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs1143630 and rs1143643 remained significantly associated with lymph node metastasis after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In haplotype analysis, two linkage disequilibrium blocks (block 1 consisted of rs1143627, rs3917356, and rs1143630; block 2 consisted of rs1143633 and rs1143643) also revealed significant associations with lymph node metastasis. Our results suggest that IL-1B polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of PTC in the Korean population. Especially, IL-1B polymorphisms might be a predictive factor for lymph node metastasis of PTC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ocular development, retinal physiological hypoxia in response to the retinal metabolic activity controls retinal vascular development, which is regulated by variable angiogenic factors. Herein, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced IGF-II could contribute to retinal vascularization in ocular development. In the developing retina, IGF-II expression appears to be predominant on retinal vessels, which was chronologically increased and peaked during active retinal angiogenesis similar to VEGF expression. Under hypoxic condition, IGF-II as well as VEGF was significantly up-regulated in retinal vascular endothelial cells. In addition, IGF-II treatment could also increase VEGF expression in retinal vascular endothelial cells. The VEGF expression induced by IGF-II was mediated by ERK-1/2 activation. Moreover, IGF-II strongly promoted angiogenic processes of migration and tube formation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, our results provided that hypoxia-induced IGF-II may regulate retinal vascular development not only directly by IGF-II-mediated angiogenic activity, but also indirectly by IGF-II-induced VEGF expression. Therefore, the potential contribution of IGF-II to pathological retinal angiogenesis should be furthermore explored for the development of novel treatments to vaso-proliferative retinopathies.