Rumsaïs Blatrix

Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

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Publications (38)132.61 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ant-plant mutualisms are conspicuous and ecologically important components of tropical ecosystems that remain largely unexplored in terms of insect-associated microbial communities. Recent work has revealed that ants in some ant-plant systems cultivate fungi (Chaetothyriales) within their domatia, which are fed to larvae. Using Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. from French Guiana and Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana and Crematogaster margaritae/Keetia hispida, both from Cameroon, as models, we tested the hypothesis that ant-plant-fungus mutualisms co-occur with culturable Actinobacteria. Using selective media, we isolated 861 putative Actinobacteria from the three systems. All C. margaritae/K. hispida samples had culturable Actinobacteria with a mean of 10.0 colony forming units (CFUs) per sample, while 26 % of P. penetrator/Tachigali samples (mean CFUs 1.3) and 67 % of P. phylax/L. africana samples (mean CFUs 3.6) yielded Actinobacteria. The largest number of CFUs was obtained from P. penetrator workers, P. phylax alates, and C. margaritae pupae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four main clades of Streptomyces and one clade of Nocardioides within these three ant-plant mutualisms. Streptomyces with antifungal properties were isolated from all three systems, suggesting that they could serve as protective symbionts, as found in other insects. In addition, a number of isolates from a clade of Streptomyces associated with P. phylax/L. africana and C. margaritae/K. hispida were capable of degrading cellulose, suggesting that Streptomyces in these systems may serve a nutritional role. Repeated isolation of particular clades of Actinobacteria from two geographically distant locations supports these isolates as residents in ant-plant-fungi niches.
    Microbial ecology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Ant-plant symbioses involve plants that provide hollow structures specialized for housing ants and often food to ants. In return, the inhabiting ants protect plants against herbivores and sometimes provide them with nutrients. Here, we review recent advances in ant-plant symbioses, focusing on three areas. First, the nutritional ecology of plant-ants, which is based not only on plant-derived food rewards, but also on inputs from other symbiotic partners, in particular fungi and possibly bacteria. Food and protection are the most important 'currencies' exchanged between partners and they drive the nature and evolution of the relationships. Secondly, studies of conflict and cooperation in ant-plant symbioses have contributed key insights into the evolution and maintenance of mutualism, particularly how partner-mediated feedbacks affect the specificity and stability of mutualisms. There is little evidence that mutualistic ants or plants are under selection to cheat, but the costs and benefits of ant-plant interactions do vary with environmental factors, making them vulnerable to natural or anthropogenic environmental change. Thus, thirdly, ant-plant symbioses should be considered good models for investigating the effects of global change on the outcome of mutualistic interactions.
    New Phytologist 01/2014; · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some South American lowland environments bear impressive legacies of pre-Columbian engineering activities: vestiges of agricultural raised fields that have persisted since their abandonment centuries or millennia ago. We aimed to test the hypothesis that ancient raised fields were “re-engineered” by non-human soil organisms, leading to their maintenance against erosion. In a raised-field landscape in a seasonally flooded coastal savanna of French Guiana, we characterized the distribution of soil macroinvertebrates (ants, termites, earthworms) and plant roots between ancient raised fields (in this site, circular mounds) and inter-mound areas and between dry and wet seasons, and quantified the influence of these organisms on soil physical properties and texture. Social insect colonies were highly concentrated in mound soils; their density and species richness were maintained across seasons. Biomass of plant roots was higher in mounds than in inter-mound areas. Adult earthworms were inactive in deep soil layers during the dry season, becoming active at the surface of mounds during the wet season. Combined engineering activities of these organisms in the soil of ancient raised fields led to the accumulation of stable macroaggregates and pores, which should reduce the redistribution of fine soil particles between mounds and inter-mounds caused by erosion. Since their abandonment, and perhaps before, raised fields have attracted a diverse and abundant community of soil engineers that enhance the stability of mound soils, allowing their maintenance against erosion.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 07/2013; 62. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii.
    Molecular Ecology Resources 05/2013; 13(4):760-762. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some tropical plant species possess hollow structures (domatia) occupied by ants that protect the plant and in some cases also provide it with nutrients. Most plant-ants tend patches of chaetothyrialean fungi within domatia. In a few systems it has been shown that the ants manure the fungal patches and use them as a food source, indicating agricultural practices. However, the identity of these fungi has been investigated only in a few samples. To examine the specificity and constancy of ant-plant-fungus interactions we characterised the content of fungal patches in an extensive sampling of three ant-plant symbioses (Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana, Aphomomyrmex afer/Leonardoxa africana subsp. letouzeyi and Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa) by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacers of ribosomal DNA. For each system the content of fungal patches was constant over individuals and populations. Each symbiosis was associated with a specific, dominant, primary fungal taxon, and to a lesser extent, with one or two specific secondary taxa, all of the order Chaetothyriales. A single fungal patch sometimes contained both a primary and a secondary taxon. In one system, two founding queens were found with the primary fungal taxon only, one that was shown in a previous study to be consumed preferentially. Because the different ant-plant symbioses studied have evolved independently, the high specificity and constancy we observed in the composition of the fungal patches have evolved repeatedly. Specificity and constancy also characterize other cases of agriculture by insects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68101. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Rumsaïs Blatrix, Doyle McKey, Céline Born
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    ABSTRACT: Les interactions obligatoires entre espèces sont fondamentales au fonctionnement des écosystèmes et sont particulièrement sensibles aux changements climatiques. Bien que l’effet des changements climatiques passés et présents sur les espèces prises individuellement soit l’objet de nombreuses études, l’effet sur les interactions obligatoires est mal connu. Dans cette revue, nous exposons les attendus concernant les effets des changements climatiques sur les interactions obligatoires et les illustrons avec des exemples pris dans la littérature. Nous nous sommes focalisés sur les changements climatiques abrupts passés, en particulier du Quaternaire, car ils permettent de comprendre et de prédire la réponse des organismes et des écosystèmes au changement climatique actuel. Par ailleurs, nous insistons sur la nécessité d’une meilleure calibration temporelle des évènements démographiques à partir des données génétiques et sur le besoin de concentrer les efforts sur un nombre réduit de modèles biologiques particulièrement propices. Nous espérons que cette revue stimulera les interactions entre sciences de la terre et sciences de la vie sur ce thème d’actualité.
    Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 01/2013; 345(s 7–8):306–315.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making) ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi) within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. RESULTS: Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections) towards parasite than toward non-parasite intruders. CONCLUSIONS: We used two different analyses of our behavioral data (standardized with the chemical distance between colonies or not) to test our hypothesis. Standardized data show behavioral differences which could indicate qualitative and specific parasite recognition. We finally stress the importance of considering the whole set of potentially interacting species to understand the coevolution between social parasites and their hosts.
    Frontiers in Zoology 12/2012; 9(1):38. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The four species of the central African genus Barteria show variation in habitat and in degree of association with ants. Whereas B. solida, restricted to submontane forests, attracts opportunistic ants to extrafloral nectar, the three other species, found in lowland rainforests (B. fistulosa, B. dewevrei) and in littoral scrub (B. nigritana), possess stem domatia of varying shapes and degrees of specialisation, hosting either non-specific arboreal ants (B. nigritana, some B. dewevrei) or two large species of ants of the genus Tetraponera Smith, 1852 that are specific to some species of Barteria (B. fistulosa, some B. dewevrei). We aimed to investigate whether this variation represents an evolutionary trend toward increasing specialisation of mutualism or the reduction or loss of myrmecophytic traits. For this, we determined phylogenetic relationships within the genus using DNA sequences (primarily nuclear ITS) and microsatellite genotypes (11 loci) on a large sample of individuals, mostly from Cameroon and Gabon. The two types of markers support an initial dichotomy that groups B. dewevrei with B. nigritana and B. fistulosa with B. solida respectively. Within these pairs, species do not appear reciprocally monophyletic. At microsatellite loci, B. nigritana forms a clade embedded within B. dewevrei; and within both B. solida and B. fistulosa, geographical populations show levels of differentiation similar to that observed between populations of B. solida and B. fistulosa. Geographic distance alone does not account for genetic differentiation between species, which indicates reproductive isolation. Divergence in each of the two pairs implies evolutionary transitions in habitat and in myrmecophytism. Specialised mutualism with specific ant species of the genus Tetraponera has been lost in species found in more marginal habitats.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11/2012; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims Plant defence traits against herbivores incur production costs that are usually difficult to measure. However, estimating these costs is a prerequisite for characterizing the plant defence strategy as a whole. Myrmecophytes are plants that provide symbiotic ants with specialized nesting cavities, called domatia, in exchange for protection against herbivores. In the particular case of stem domatia, production of extra wood seems to be the only associated cost, making this indirect defence trait a particularly suitable model for estimating the cost of defence. Methods Measurements were made of growth pattern and cumulative production cost of domatia over secondary growth in the myrmecophyte Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana, whose internodes display both a solid basal segment and a hollow distal part (the domatium), thus allowing paired comparison of investment in wood. Key Results Previous studies showed that 'overconstruction' of the hollow part of internodes during primary growth is needed for mechanical support. In this study, it is shown that the relationship between the woody cross-sectional area of the solid and hollow parts of internodes is negatively allometric at the beginning of secondary growth and nearly isometric later on. Thus, in hollow stems, the first phase of slow secondary growth compensates for the 'overconstruction' of the ring of wood during primary growth. Moreover, the cumulative production cost of a domatium (estimated as the additional volume of wood required for a hollow stem compared with a solid one) is very high at the beginning of secondary growth and then quickly tends to zero. Conclusions Making domatia incurs high costs early in ontogeny, costs that are then amortized later in development of stems and of individual plants. Characterizing ontogenetic variation of the net cost of this peculiar defence mechanism will help us build more accurate theoretical models of resource allocation in myrmecophytes.
    Annals of Botany 08/2012; 110(5):943-51. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 08/2012; 279(1744):3940-7. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax.
    Molecular Ecology Resources 03/2012; 12(3):570-2. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax.
    Molecular Ecology Resources 01/2012; 12(3):570-572. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana.
    Molecular Ecology Resources 12/2011; 12(1):185-9. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Climate oscillations produce dramatic changes in species distribution, even in the tropics. The ant–plant Leonardoxa africana africana hosts and feeds the ant Petalomyrmex phylax, which provides protection against herbivores in return. Both partners of this symbiosis present a recent southward range expansion. To test whether the higher investment in sexuals (and thus lower investment in protective workers) previously documented on the colonization front is compensated by a more effective protective behaviour, we compared ant behavioural investment in plant defence between two populations, one in the core of the range and one on the colonization front. We induced ant patrolling activity by artificially damaging leaflets and measured this activity by counting patrolling ants and calculating the increase relative to constitutive patrolling activity measured on control (undamaged) leaflets. Contrary to our expectation, ant behavioural investment in plant defence was lower on the colonization front. Thus, production of fewer workers is not compensated by more protective behaviour of each. Instead, both traits contribute to a phenotype that is less mutualistic as a whole. By favouring increased allocation to dispersal, range expansion can shape ant behavioural traits and potentially the outcome of mutualism.
    Acta Oecologica 11/2011; · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on pure culture studies and DNA phylogenetic analyses, black yeasts (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota) are shown to be widely distributed and important components of numerous plant-ant-fungus networks, independently acquired by several ant lineages in the Old and New World. Data from ITS and LSU nu rDNA demonstrate that a high biodiversity of fungal species is involved. There are two common ant-fungus symbioses involving black yeasts: (1) on the carton walls of ant nests and galleries, and (2) the fungal mats growing within non-pathogenic naturally hollow structures (so-called domatia) provided by myrmecophytic plants as nesting space for ants (ant-plant symbiosis). Most carton- and domatia-inhabiting fungi stem from different phylogenetic lineages within Chaetothyriales, and almost all of the fungi isolated are still undescribed. Despite being closely related, carton and domatia fungi are shown to differ markedly in their morphology and ecology, indicating that they play different roles in these associations. The carton fungi appear to improve the stability of the carton, and several species are commonly observed to co-occur on the same carton. Carton fungi commonly have dark-walled monilioid hyphae, colouring the carton blackish and apparently preventing other fungi from invading the carton. Despite the simultaneous presence of usually several species of fungi, forming complex associations on the carton, little overlap is observed between carton fungi from different ant species, even those that co-occur in nature, indicating at least some host specificity of fungi. Most fungi present on carton belong to Chaetothyriales, but in a few samples, Capnodiales are also an important component. Carton fungi are difficult to assign to anamorph genera, as most lack conidiation. The domatia fungi are more specific. In domatia, usually only one or two fungal species co-occur, producing a dense layer on living host plant tissue in domatia. They have hyaline or light brown thin-walled hyphae, and are commonly sporulating. In both carton and domatia, the fungal species seem to be specific to each ant-plant symbiosis. Representative examples of carton and domatia ant-fungus symbioses are illustrated. We discuss hypotheses on the ecological significance of the Chaetothyriales associated with ants.
    Fungal Biology 10/2011; 115(10):1077-91. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myrmecophytes are plants that provide nesting sites and food to ants that protect them against herbivores. Plant signals function to synchronize ant patrolling with the probability of herbivory. We compared the communication signals in two symbioses involving ant and plant pairs that are closely related. The two plants emitted the same volatile compounds upon damage. These compounds are simple molecules common in the plant kingdom. Electroantennography revealed that the two symbiotic ants, as well as several other ant species, were able to perceive these compounds. However, workers of one species responded only to hexanal, while those of the other species responded mostly to methyl salicylate. The two signals involved in the focal symbioses are ‘cheap’ (low metabolic cost), which is consistent with theoretical predictions for the evolution of signalling between partners with convergent interests. They are also not specific, which is expected between plants and broad-spectrum predators such as ants. The fact that different signals are used in the two sister symbioses suggests different mechanisms underlying similar adaptations in the evolution of communication. KeywordsSymbiosis–Coevolution–Volatile organic compound–Myrmecophyte– Leonardoxa
    Evolutionary Biology 01/2011; 38(3):360-369. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In ant-plant symbioses, plants provide symbiotic ants with food and specialized nesting cavities (called domatia). In many ant-plant symbioses, a fungal patch grows within each domatium. The symbiotic nature of the fungal association has been shown in the ant-plant Leonardoxa africana and its protective mutualist ant Petalomyrmex phylax. To decipher trophic fluxes among the three partners, food enriched in (13)C and (15)N was given to the ants and tracked in the different parts of the symbiosis up to 660 days later. The plant received a small, but significant, amount of nitrogen from the ants. However, the ants fed more intensively the fungus. The pattern of isotope enrichment in the system indicated an ant behaviour that functions specifically to feed the fungus. After 660 days, the introduced nitrogen was still present in the system and homogeneously distributed among ant, plant and fungal compartments, indicating efficient recycling within the symbiosis. Another experiment showed that the plant surface absorbed nutrients (in the form of simple molecules) whether or not it is coated by fungus. Our study provides arguments for a mutualistic status of the fungal associate and a framework for investigating the previously unsuspected complexity of food webs in ant-plant mutualisms.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 10/2010; 278(1710):1419-26. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    Rumsaïs Blatrix, Veronika Mayer
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    ABSTRACT: Plant communication abilities are the subject of intensive research. They have been particularly investigated in the context of signalling herbivore activity and responding to these signals. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge on communication between plants and ants in ant–plant symbioses. Chemistry is the preponderant channel in ant–plant communication. Communication is identified in five contexts: the selection of seeds by ants to sow ant-gardens, the detection of the host plant by founding queens, the discrimination of the host plant by the inhabiting ants to prune exogenous vegetation, the selective continuous patrolling on young shoots by workers and the damage-induced ant-mediated plant protection. Implications of communication for the evolutionary ecology of ant–plant symbioses are discussed and directions for future research are given.
    08/2010: pages 127-158;
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    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2009; 4(6):554-6.

Publication Stats

194 Citations
132.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2013
    • Institut Universitaire de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011–2013
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      • Centre d’Écologie Fonctionnelle et Évolutive (CEFE)
      Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
    • University of Vienna
      • Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2009–2012
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000–2005
    • Université Paris 13 Nord
      • LEEC Laboratoire d'Ethologie Expirementale et Comparee
      Île-de-France, France
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Colorado State University
      • Department of Biology
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States