[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that obese animals exhibit increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver and adipose tissue. Although ER stress is closely associated with lipid homeostasis, it is largely unknown how ER stress contributes to hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrate that the induction of ER stress stimulates hepatic steatosis through increased expression of the hepatic very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). Among the unfolded protein response sensors, the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase–activating transcription factor 4 signaling pathway was required for hepatic VLDLR up-regulation. In primary hepatocytes, ER stress–dependent VLDLR expression induced intracellular triglyceride accumulation in the presence of very low-density lipoprotein. Moreover, ER stress–dependent hepatic steatosis was diminished in the livers of VLDLR-deficient and apolipoprotein E–deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the VLDLR-deficient mice exhibited decreased hepatic steatosis upon high-fat diet feeding. Conclusion: These data suggest that ER stress–dependent expression of hepatic VLDLR leads to hepatic steatosis by increasing lipoprotein delivery to the liver, which might be a novel mechanism explaining ER stress–induced hepatic steatosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;57:1366–1377)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrate that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with glabridin alleviates adiposity and hyperlipidemia in obesity. In several obese rodent models, glabridin decreased body weight and adiposity with a concomitant reduction in fat cell size. Further, glabridin ameliorated fatty liver and plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. In accordance with these findings, glabridin suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBP)-1c, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 in white adipose tissues and liver, whereas it elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)1, acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α in muscle. Moreover, glabridin enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle and liver and promoted fatty acid oxidation by modulating mitochondrial activity. Together, these data suggest that glabridin is a novel AMPK activator that would exert therapeutic effects in obesity-related metabolic disorders.
The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2012; 53(7):1277-86. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M022897 · 4.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to systemic metabolic irregularities and obesity-linked metabolic disorders. Orosomucoid (ORM), an acute phase reactant protein, was shown to be produced in response to metabolic and inflammatory signals in the adipose tissue of obese mice, which protects them from severe inflammation and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we examined whether there are site-specific differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) ORM gene and protein expression from individuals with a wide range of obesity and the relationship between expressed and circulating ORM levels and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers and adipokines. The level of circulating ORM correlated positively with BMI, body fat mass, and serum leptin. It also correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR values and C-reactive protein in men. There were no site-specific differences in ORM mRNA and protein expression between VAT and SAT, nor did we find a relationship between circulating ORM levels and its mRNA expression in either fat depot. We found that ORM mRNA expression correlated with mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and adiponectin in VAT, and with TNF-α and adiponectin in SAT. These observations are the first description linking adipose tissue ORM and pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in humans. The close links of ORM and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation in humans reinforce previous experimental data and warrant further studies to explore a possible role of ORM in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle associated with lipid metabolism. However, the involvement of the ER in nutritional status-dependent energy homeostasis is largely unknown. We demonstrate that IRE-1, an ER protein known to be involved in the unfolded protein response, and HSP-4, an ER chaperone, regulate expression of the novel fasting-induced lipases FIL-1 and FIL-2, which induce fat granule hydrolysis upon fasting in C. elegans. RNAi and ectopic expression experiments demonstrated that FIL-1 and FIL-2 are both necessary and sufficient for fasting-induced fat granule breakdown. Failure of ire-1 and hsp-4 mutant animals to hydrolyze fat granules during starvation impaired their motility, which was rescued by glucose supplementation, implicating the importance of ire-1/hsp-4-dependent lipolysis for energy supply from stored fat during fasting. These data suggest that the ER-resident proteins IRE-1 and HSP-4 are key nutritional sensors that modulate expression of inducible lipases to maintain whole-body energy homeostasis in C. elegans.