[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members target several intracellular Ca(2+)-transport systems. Bcl-2, via its N-terminal Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while Bcl-XL, likely independently of its BH4 domain, sensitizes IP3Rs. It remains elusive whether Bcl-XL can also target and modulate RyRs. Here, Bcl-XL co-immunoprecipitated with RyR3 expressed in HEK293 cells. Mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that Bcl-XL bound to the central domain of RyR3 via its BH4 domain, although to a lesser extent compared to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2. Consistent with the ability of the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL to bind to RyRs, loading the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide into RyR3-overexpressing HEK293 cells or in rat hippocampal neurons suppressed RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release. In silico superposition of the 3D-structures of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL indicated that Lys87 of the BH3 domain of Bcl-XL could be important for interacting with RyRs. In contrast to Bcl-XL, the Bcl-XL(K87D) mutant displayed lower binding affinity for RyR3 and a reduced inhibition of RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release. These data suggest that Bcl-XL binds to RyR channels via its BH4 domain, but also its BH3 domain, more specific Lys87, contributes to the interaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-death and -survival decisions are critically controlled by intracellular Ca2 + homeostasis and dynamics at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) play a pivotal role in these processes by mediating Ca2 + flux from the ER into the cytosol and mitochondria. Hence, it is clear that many pro-survival and pro-death signaling pathways and proteins affect Ca2 + signaling by directly targeting IP3R channels, which can happen in an IP3R-isoform-dependent manner. In this review, we will focus on how the different IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2 and IP3R3) control cell death and survival. First, we will present an overview of the isoform-specific regulation of IP3Rs by cellular factors like IP3, Ca2 +, Ca2 +-binding proteins, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), thiol modification, phosphorylation and interacting proteins, and of IP3R-isoform specific expression patterns. Second, we will discuss the role of the ER as a Ca2 + store in cell death and survival and how IP3Rs and pro-survival/pro-death proteins can modulate the basal ER Ca2 + leak. Third, we will review the regulation of the Ca2 +-flux properties of the IP3R isoforms by the ER-resident and by the cytoplasmic proteins involved in cell death and survival as well as by redox regulation. Hence, we aim to highlight the specific roles of the various IP3R isoforms in cell-death and -survival signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling In Health and Disease.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 10/2014; 1843(10). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.03.007 · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) performs multiple functions in the cell: it is the major site of protein and lipid synthesis as well as the most important intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir. Adverse conditions, including a decrease in the ER Ca(2+) level or an increase in oxidative stress, impair the formation of new proteins, resulting in ER stress. The subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular attempt to lower the burden on the ER and to restore ER homeostasis by imposing a general arrest in protein synthesis, upregulating chaperone proteins and degrading misfolded proteins. This response can also lead to autophagy and, if the stress can not be alleviated, to apoptosis. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) and IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) signaling are important players in these processes. Not only is the IP(3)R activity modulated in a dual way during ER stress, but also other key proteins involved in Ca(2+) signaling are modulated. Changes also occur at the structural level with a strengthening of the contacts between the ER and the mitochondria, which are important determinants of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. The resulting cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals will control cellular decisions that either promote cell survival or cause their elimination via apoptosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:12th European Symposium on Calcium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-protein family, including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1, directly bind and regulate the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R), the main intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular determinants underlying their binding to the IP(3)R remained a matter of debate. One interaction site for Bcl-2 was proposed in the central part of the modulatory domain [Y.P. Rong, A.S. Aromolaran, G. Bultynck, F. Zhong, X. Li, K. McColl, S. Matsuyama, S. Herlitze, H.L. Roderick, M.D. Bootman, G.A. Mignery, J.B. Parys, H. De Smedt, C.W. Distelhorst, Targeting Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction to reverse Bcl-2's inhibition of apoptotic calcium signals, Mol. Cell 31 (2008) 255-265] and another site in the C-terminal domain of the IP(3)R encompassing the sixth transmembrane domain, to which Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1 can bind [E.F. Eckenrode, J. Yang, G.V. Velmurugan, J.K. Foskett, C. White, Apoptosis protection by Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 modulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 13678-13684]. Here, we investigated and compared the binding of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) to both sites. Two different IP(3)R domains were used for the C-terminal site: one lacking and one containing the sixth transmembrane domain. Our results show that elements preceding the C-terminal cytosolic tail located at the sixth transmembrane domain of IP(3)R1 were critical for recruiting both Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) to the C-terminal part of the IP(3)R. Furthermore, consistent with our previous observations, Bcl-X(L) bound with higher efficiency to the C-terminal part of the IP(3)R and to a much lesser extent to the central, modulatory domain, while Bcl-2 targeted both sites with similar efficiencies. In conclusion, IP(3)R harbors two different binding sites for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, one in the central, modulatory domain and one in the C-terminal domain near the Ca(2+)-channel pore.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2012; 428(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.10.002 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a multitransmembrane domain-spanning endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-located protein that is evolutionarily conserved and protects against apoptosis and ER stress. Furthermore, BI-1 is proposed to modulate ER Ca(2+) homeostasis by acting as a Ca(2+)-leak channel. Based on experimental determination of the BI-1 topology, we propose that its C terminus forms a Ca(2+) pore responsible for its Ca(2+)-leak properties. We utilized a set of C-terminal peptides to screen for Ca(2+) leak activity in unidirectional (45)Ca(2+)-flux experiments and identified an α-helical 20-amino acid peptide causing Ca(2+) leak from the ER. The Ca(2+) leak was independent of endogenous ER Ca(2+)-release channels or other Ca(2+)-leak mechanisms, namely translocons and presenilins. The Ca(2+)-permeating property of the peptide was confirmed in lipid-bilayer experiments. Using mutant peptides, we identified critical residues responsible for the Ca(2+)-leak properties of this BI-1 peptide, including a series of critical negatively charged aspartate residues. Using peptides corresponding to the equivalent BI-1 domain from various organisms, we found that the Ca(2+)-leak properties were conserved among animal, but not plant and yeast orthologs. By mutating one of the critical aspartate residues in the proposed Ca(2+)-channel pore in full-length BI-1, we found that Asp-213 was essential for BI-1-dependent ER Ca(2+) leak. Thus, we elucidated residues critically important for BI-1-mediated Ca(2+) leak and its potential channel pore. Remarkably, one of these residues was not conserved among plant and yeast BI-1 orthologs, indicating that the ER Ca(2+)-leak properties of BI-1 are an added function during evolution.