[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background There is an opportunity to improve the image quality and lesion detectability in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by choosing an appropriate reconstruction method and optimal parameters for the reconstruction. Purpose To optimize the use of the Flash 3D reconstruction algorithm in terms of equivalent iteration (EI) number (number of subsets times the number of iterations) and to compare with two recently developed reconstruction algorithms ReSPECT and orthogonal polynomial expansion on disc (OPED) for application on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-SPECT. Material and Methods Eleven adult patients underwent SPECT 4 h and 14 patients 24 h after injection of approximately 200 MBq (123)I-MIBG using a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT. Images were reconstructed from raw data using the Flash 3D algorithm at eight different EI numbers. The images were ranked by three experienced nuclear medicine physicians according to their overall impression of the image quality. The obtained optimal images were then compared in one further visual comparison with images reconstructed using the ReSPECT and OPED algorithms. Results The optimal EI number for Flash 3D was determined to be 32 for acquisition 4 h and 24 h after injection. The average rank order (best first) for the different reconstructions for acquisition after 4 h was: Flash 3D(32) > ReSPECT > Flash 3D(64) > OPED, and after 24 h: Flash 3D(16) > ReSPECT > Flash 3D(32) > OPED. A fair level of inter-observer agreement concerning optimal EI number and reconstruction algorithm was obtained, which may be explained by the different individual preferences of what is appropriate image quality. Conclusion Using Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT and specified acquisition parameters, Flash 3D(32) (4 h) and Flash 3D(16) (24 h), followed by ReSPECT, were assessed to be the preferable reconstruction algorithms in visual assessment of (123)I-MIBG images.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET with (18)F-choline ((18)F-FCH) is used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and its recurrences. In this work, biodistribution data from a recent study conducted at Skåne University Hospital Malmö were used for the development of a biokinetic and dosimetric model.
The biodistribution of (18)F-FCH was followed for 10 patients using PET up to 4 h after administration. Activity concentrations in blood and urine samples were also determined. A compartmental model structure was developed, and values of the model parameters were obtained for each single patient and for a reference patient using a population kinetic approach. Radiation doses to the organs were determined using computational (voxel) phantoms for the determination of the S factors.
The model structure consists of a central exchange compartment (blood), 2 compartments each for the liver and kidneys, 1 for spleen, 1 for urinary bladder, and 1 generic compartment accounting for the remaining material. The model can successfully describe the individual patients' data. The parameters showing the greatest interindividual variations are the blood volume (the clearance process is rapid, and early blood data are not available for several patients) and the transfer out from liver (the physical half-life of (18)F is too short to follow this long-term process with the necessary accuracy). The organs receiving the highest doses are the kidneys (reference patient, 0.079 mGy/MBq; individual values, 0.033-0.105 mGy/MBq) and the liver (reference patient, 0.062 mGy/MBq; individual values, 0.036-0.082 mGy/MBq). The dose to the urinary bladder wall of the reference patient varies between 0.017 and 0.030 mGy/MBq, depending on the assumptions on bladder voiding.
The model gives a satisfactory description of the biodistribution of (18)F-FCH and realistic estimates of the radiation dose received by the patients.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2012; 53(6):985-93. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.111.099408 · 5.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work develops a compartmental model of (18)F-choline in order to evaluate its biokinetics and so to describe the temporal variation of the radiopharmaceuticals' uptake in and clearance from organs and tissues.
Ten patients were considered in this study. A commercially available tool for compartmental analysis (SAAM II) was used to model the values of activity concentrations in organs and tissues obtained from PET images or from measurements of collected blood and urine samples.
A linear compartmental model of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical was initially developed. It features a central compartment (blood) exchanging with organs. The structure describes explicitly liver, kidneys, spleen, blood and urinary excretion. The linear model tended to overestimate systematically the activity in the liver and in the kidney compartments in the first 20 min post-administration. A nonlinear process of kinetic saturation was considered, according to the typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Therefore nonlinear equations were added to describe the flux of (18)F-choline from blood to liver and from blood to kidneys. The nonlinear model showed a tendency for improvement in the description of the activity in liver and kidneys, but not for the urine.
The simple linear model presented is not able to properly describe the biokinetics of (18)F-choline as measured in prostatic cancer patients. The introduction of nonlinear kinetics, although based on physiologically plausible assumptions, resulted in nonsignificant improvements of the model predictive power.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 11/2011; 39(2):261-8. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.09.002 · 2.41 Impact Factor