ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a serious disease leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifocal and recurrent strokes are usually caused by embolic diseases, i.e. atrial fibrillation, but rare causes like cerebral vasculitis and clotting disorders are also well known. Here we report on two patients suffering from the very rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma leading to multifocal and recurrent strokes in the brain and spinal cord as the prominent neurological symptom. The difficulties and the need for diagnostic brain biopsy in making an 'in vivo' diagnosis in this particular disease are outlined. Furthermore, the prerequisite for an interdisciplinary approach in these patients is strongly emphasized. Delayed diagnosis for several reasons was the most probable cause for cerebral relapse leading to death in one patient a few months after diagnosis. Conversely, early initiation of immunochemotherapy with a classical lymphoma schedule (R-CHOP) led to long-lasting remission of the disease in the other patient. With this report we like to improve alertness to intravascular large B-cell lymphoma as a cause for multifocal and recurrent strokes.
Case Reports in Neurology 09/2011; 3(3):278-83.