[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), atherosclerosis is attributed to traditional and lupus related risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, and inflammation. Objective. To evaluate the association between obesity, measures of body fat content, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and -10 levels in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE). Methods. We screened consecutive cSLE patients followed up in the Pediatric Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas. cSLE patients were assessed for disease and damage. Obesity was definite as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine total fat mass, lean mass, and percent of body fat. Results. We included 52 cSLE patients and 52 controls. cSLE patients had higher serum TNF-α (P = 0.004), IL-6 (P = 0.002), and IL-10 (P < 0.001) levels compared to controls. We observed higher serum TNF-α (P = 0.036) levels in cSLE patients with obesity. An association between serum TNF-α levels and body fat percent (P = 0.046) and total fat mass on trunk region (P = 0.035) was observed. Conclusion. Serum TNF-α levels were associated with obesity and body fat content in cSLE. Our finding suggests that obesity may contribute to the increase of serum TNF-α levels in cSLE.
Journal of immunology research. 01/2014; 2014:162047.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment.
We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses.
A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described. Treatment of nervous system involvement, on the other hand, varied in a case-to-case basis. However, corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide were usually prescribed in severe cases.
Previously considered a rare event, nervous system involvement in scleroderma has been increasingly recognized. Seizures and headache are the most reported features in LS en coup de sabre, while peripheral and autonomic nervous systems involvement predominate in SSc. Moreover, recently, reports have frequently documented white matter lesions in asymptomatic SSc patients, suggesting smaller branches and perforating arteries involvement.
Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 07/2013; · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localized scleroderma is a rare disease, characterized by sclerotic lesions. A variety of presentations have been described, with different clinical characteristics and specific prognosis. In scleroderma en coup de sabre (LScs) the atrophic lesion in frontoparietal area is the disease hallmark. Skin and subcutaneous are the mainly affected tissues, but case reports of muscle, cartilage, and bone involvement are frequent. These cases pose a difficult differential diagnosis with Parry-Romberg syndrome. Once considered an exclusive cutaneous disorder, the neurologic involvement present in LScs has been described in several case reports. Seizures are most frequently observed, but focal neurologic deficits, movement disorders, trigeminal neuralgia, and mimics of hemiplegic migraines have been reported. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have aided the characterization of central nervous system lesions, and cerebral angiograms have pointed to vasculitis as a part of disease pathogenesis. In this paper we describe the clinical and radiologic aspects of neurologic involvement in LScs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem prothrombotic condition, however, in recent years, its inflammatory nature has been studied extensively. Cerebral involvement is commonly observed in APS and results in different clinical manifestations. However, most of the studies include secondary APS. In this article, we review the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and physiopathology of cognitive impairment in patients with primary APS.