[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process.
Science of The Total Environment 08/2014; 499C:166-174. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.058 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of the level of exposure to As on human metabolism was studied in a population of Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces, northern Argentina. The wide range of levels of urinary arsenic (from 18 to 4103 µg/g of creatinine) showed to correlate positively (Rs=0.38, P<0.0001) with urinary %MMA and negatively (Rs=-0.32, P<0.001) with %DMA. The higher the exposure, the greater the % of urinary MMA and the lower the urinary DMA. Age, gender and presence of T860C gene polymorphism also showed to influence urinary As metabolite distribution. The existence of populations with such high levels of exposure increases, not linearly, but exponentially their risk of developing As related diseases.
5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment; 05/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 03/2014; 5(1):1-10. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the concentration of arsenic in water collected in localities of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the epidemiological relationship of that concentration to factors of susceptibility and associated pathologies.
In 152 samples from 52 localities of Buenos Aires from 2003-2008, the concentration of arsenic was quantified through the generation of hydride spectrophotometry of atomic absorption. A composite index of health (CIH) was constructed using the content of arsenic and the percentages of households with unmet basic needs and dwellings without access to the potable water. Through the CIH, risk areas associated with mortality from malignant neoplasms related to arsenic were defined.
Concentrations of arsenic spanned a broad range from 0.3 to 187 mg/L, with a median of 40 mg/L. Of the samples, 82% presented levels of arsenic higher than the acceptable limit of 10 mg/L, and more than half of those came from households with potable water connections. In the departments studied, the average mortality (deaths/100 000 inhabitants) from tumors was greater in men than in women: respiratory tract (310 versus 76), urinary tract (44 versus 11), and skin (21 versus 11), respectively. The regions with greater concentrations of arsenic and of poverty, together with the lack of potable water connections, had a two-to-four times greater risk.
The findings from the composite index of health summarized the health risk from exposure to arsenic for lower socioeconomic levels of the population for a broad area of the province of Buenos Aires.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 01/2012; 31(1):1-8. DOI:10.1590/S1020-49892012000100001 · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 μg/L), some to as high as 2000 μg/L--200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America--including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.
Science of The Total Environment 11/2011; 429:76-91. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.051 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine in man, is widely used as an abstention marker to Nicotiana tabacum smoke, as well as to evaluate passive inhalation of tobacco smoke by non‐smokers. Development and validation of a reversed‐phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP‐HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection for identification and quantification of cotinine in human plasma and urine are described. After diluting plasma with distilled water (1/6), NaOH 5 M (1:1) was added to both matrices and cotinine extracted using a RP 18 solid phase extraction column (SPE). Extracts were resuspended in mobile phase phosphate buffer pH 6.8:acetonitrile (90:10) and injected into a Lichrospher 100 RP‐18 column (5 µm). The UV detector was set to 260 nm. Linear calibration curves in the range of 10–1000 ng/mL of cotinine with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 were obtained. Within‐run and between‐run accuracy was less than 5%. Cotinine detection limit was 20 ng/mL. The proposed chromatographic system allows cotinine to be separated from caffeine.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 06/2009; 27(15):2371-2379. DOI:10.1081/JLC-200028146 · 0.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 04/2009; 26(3):275-81. DOI:10.1080/02652030802430649 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood lead levels (PbB), delta-ALA dehydratase activity (ALAD) and erythrocytic protoporphyrin (EPP) values were studied in heavy wine and spirit drinkers. Results were compared in both groups and with a control group (teetotalers). Results in all cases are expressed as arithmetic means +/- SD. PbB values found in the three groups were statistically different inter se: wine group, 195 +/- 82 microg l(-1); spirits group, 159 +/- 69 microg l(-1); teetotalers, 72 +/- 43 microg l(-1). ALAD was significantly lower in the drinker groups (wine 26.9 plus minus 11.4 U l(-1)and spirits 28.3 plus minus 11.6 U l(-1))vs the control group (48.3 plus minus 13.5 U l(-1)). Differences in EPP levels in the three groups were only significant between the teetotaler and the wine drinker groups. Our findings indicate that, in heavy drinkers (more than 2 liters of wine per day), not only are lead levels increased in the blood but there are also biochemical alterations that affect the heme biosynthetic pathway, which should be taken into account in treatment for alcoholics.
Pharmacological Research 02/2002; 45(1):47-50. DOI:10.1006/phrs.2001.0899 · 4.41 Impact Factor