[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) activity is stimulated at lead doses lower than that necessary to inhibit δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity (δ-ALA-D), which is a classical early biomarker of lead effects. Thus, we hypothesised that the activity of TrxR-1 could be a more sensitive early indicator of lead effects than is δ-ALA-D. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed the blood and renal TrxR-1 activity and its gene expression along with biomarkers of oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and biomarkers of lead exposure in rats acutely exposed to lead. A histopathological analysis was performed to verify renal damage. The increase in renal TrxR-1 activity paralleled the increase in the blood and renal lead levels at 6, 24 and 48 hr after the exposure to 25 mg/kg lead acetate (P<0.05), whereas its expression was increased 24 and 48 hr after exposure. These effects were not accompanied by oxidative or tissue damage in the kidneys. Blood TrxR-1 activity was not affected by lead exposure (up to 25 mg/kg). Erythrocyte δ-ALA-D activity was inhibited 6 hr after the exposure to 25 mg/kg lead acetate (P<0.05) but recovered thereafter. Renal δ-ALA-D activity decreased 24 and 48 hr after the exposure to 25 mg/kg lead acetate. There were no changes in any parameters at lead acetate doses less than 25 mg/kg. Our results indicate that blood TrxR-1 activity is not a suitable indicator of lead effects. In contrast, the increase in renal TrxR-1 expression and activity is implicated in the early events of lead exposure, most likely as a protective cellular mechanism against lead toxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L(-1), respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration.