[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Performing genetic studies in multiple human populations can identify disease risk alleles that are common in one population but rare in others, with the potential to illuminate pathophysiology, health disparities, and the population genetic origins of disease alleles. Here we analysed 9.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of 8,214 Mexicans and other Latin Americans: 3,848 with type 2 diabetes and 4,366 non-diabetic controls. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identified a novel locus associated with type 2 diabetes at genome-wide significance spanning the solute carriers SLC16A11 and SLC16A13 (P = 3.9 × 10−13; odds ratio (OR) = 1.29). The association was stronger in younger, leaner people with type 2 diabetes, and replicated in independent samples (P = 1.1 × 10−4; OR = 1.20). The risk haplotype carries four amino acid substitutions, all in SLC16A11; it is present at ~50% frequency in Native American samples and ~10% in east Asian, but is rare in European and African samples. Analysis of an archaic genome sequence indicated that the risk haplotype introgressed into modern humans via admixture with Neanderthals. The SLC16A11 messenger RNA is expressed in liver, and V5-tagged SLC16A11 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of SLC16A11 in heterologous cells alters lipid metabolism, most notably causing an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol levels. Despite type 2 diabetes having been well studied by genome-wide association studies in other populations, analysis in Mexican and Latin American individuals identified SLC16A11 as a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes with a possible role in triacylglycerol metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are common in obese Hispanic adults and children. Recently, a PNPLA3 gene variant (I148M) was strongly associated with NAFLD and higher ALT levels in obese adults, including Hispanics. The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of elevated ALT levels, and to address the influence of obesity and PNPLA3/I148M on ALT levels in a general population sample of Mexican school-aged children. METHODS: 1037 non-related Mexican children aged 6 to 12 years were genotyped for the I148M variant. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic parameters were collected from all participants. RESULTS: Elevated ALT levels (>35 U/L) were more frequent in obese (26.9%) and overweight (9.3%) than in normal weight children (2.2%). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in this population (OR=3.7, 95%CI 2.3-5.9; P=3.7x10(-8)), and children carrying the M148M genotype showed significantly lower HDL cholesterol levels and BMI z-core (P=0.036 and 0.015, respectively). On stratifying by BMI percentile, this genotype conferred a much greater risk of elevated ALT levels in normal weight (OR=19.9, 95%CI 2.5-157.7; P=0.005) than overweight and obese children (OR=3.4, 95%CI 1.3-8.9;P=0.014 and OR=3.1, 95%CI 1.7-5.5; P=1.4 x10(-4), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The I148M PNPLA3 variant is strongly associated with elevated ALT levels in normal weight and overweight/obese Mexican children. Thus, the M148M genotype may be considered as an important risk factor for liver damage in this population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Mexican population and others with Amerindian heritage exhibit a substantial predisposition to dyslipidemias and coronary heart disease. Yet, these populations remain underinvestigated by genomic studies, and to date, no genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been reported for lipids in these rapidly expanding populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a two-stage GWA study for hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Mexicans (n=4361), and identified a novel Mexican-specific genome-wide significant locus for serum triglycerides (TGs) near the Niemann-Pick type C1 protein gene (p=2.43×10(-08)). Furthermore, three European loci for TGs (APOA5, GCKR and LPL), and four loci for HDL-C (ABCA1, CETP, LIPC and LOC55908) reached genome-wide significance in Mexicans. We used cross-ethnic mapping to narrow three European TG GWA loci, APOA5, MLXIPL, and CILP2 that were wide and contained multiple candidate variants in the European scan. At the APOA5 locus, this reduced the most likely susceptibility variants to one, rs964184. Importantly, our functional analysis demonstrated a direct link between rs964184 and postprandial serum apoAV protein levels, supporting rs964184 as the causative variant underlying the European and Mexican GWA signal. Overall, 52 of the 100 reported associations from European lipid GWA meta-analysis generalised to Mexicans. However, in 82 of the 100 European GWA loci, a different variant other than the European lead/best-proxy variant had the strongest regional evidence of association in Mexicans. CONCLUSIONS: This first Mexican GWA study of lipids identified a novel GWA locus for high TG levels; used the interpopulation heterogeneity to significantly restrict three previously known European GWA signals, and surveyed whether the European lipid GWA SNPs extend to the Mexican population.
Journal of Medical Genetics 03/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. METHOD: In this paper we review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future.
Globalization and Health 02/2013; 9(1):3. · 1.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos.
9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults.
After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations.
Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70640. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that persons with the R230C allele of ABCA1 show a decreased glycemic response to glyburide. This polymorphism is exclusively found in Ameri-indian populations and is associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a single blind controlled study including participants with type 2 diabetes (fasting glucose levels 126-250mg/dl and HbA1c 7%-10%) managed with metformin and a lifestyle program. Each person with the risk allele (R230C) was matched by age, gender and BMI to three others with the wild type variant (R230R). Following a four week stabilization period, only participants with a greater than 70% adherence to metformin and a stable body weight were prescribed glyburide therapy for a further 16weeks. The main outcome variable was the glyburide dose required to achieve treatment goals. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the glucose lowering effect of glyburide between subjects with the R230C and R230R alleles. However, the dose of sulfonylurea was significantly higher in the R230C participants compared with the R230R subjects (3.3±2.1 vs 6.3±5mg/day, p<0.001). A higher percentage of R230C participants required at least 5mg of glyburide per day to achieve treatment goals. The glyburide dose was determined by the presence of the risk allele, among other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes who have the R230C allele of ABCA1 needed a higher dose of glyburide in order to achieve the same glucose lowering effect as that in persons with the wild type variant.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 12/2012; · 3.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. METHODS: Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher's Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network. RESULTS: We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.
BMC Medical Genomics 12/2012; 5(1):61. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have identified nearly 40 different type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci, mainly in European populations, but few of them have been evaluated in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which 24 common genetic variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes are associated in Mexican Mestizos. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes (KCNJ11, PPARG, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, ARHGEF11, JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, FTO, TSPAN8/LGR5, KCNQ1, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, NXPH1, RORA, UBQLNL, and RALGPS2) were genotyped in Mexican Mestizos. A case-control association study comprising 1,027 type 2 diabetic individuals and 990 control individuals was conducted. To account for population stratification, a panel of 104 ancestry-informative markers was analyzed. Association to type 2 diabetes was found for rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs7923837 (HHEX), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs4402960 (IGF2BP2), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), and rs2237892 (KCNQ1). In addition, rs7754840 (CDKAL1) was associated in the nonobese type 2 diabetes subgroup, and for rs7903146 (TCF7L2), association was observed for early-onset type 2 diabetes. Lack of association for the rest of the variants may have resulted from insufficient power to detect smaller allele effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FGF21 has emerged as a hormone involved in energy homeostasis. A large number of recent reports have expanded the role of FGF21 from a response factor to prolonged fasting to a key hormone that regulates free fatty acid (FFAs) levels. The therapeutic role of recombinant human FGF21 for type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia is under study.
Recent evidence suggests that supraphysiological concentrations of FFAs induce FGF21 secretion (i.e., starvation and intense physical activity) through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) pathway. The rise in FGF21 levels is aimed at improving energy production (ketogenesis) and utilization (oxidation) of FFAs. FGF21 increment may protect against chronic exposure to high concentrations of FFAs, which causes lipotoxicity in muscle, pancreas, and liver. In addition, FGF21 induces appetite and inhibits growth, probably as part of the adaptive starvation response. The autocrine function of FGF21 in adipose tissue increases PPARγ activity and glucose uptake. Increased plasma FGF21 levels have been found in insulin resistance states in humans. However, the reason for this rise in FGF21 values is still under study.
We propose that FGF21 serves as a defense mechanism against supraphysiological concentrations of FFAs. In addition, FGF21 might have a therapeutic indication in humans.
Current opinion in pediatrics 06/2012; 24(4):523-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between carotid intima-media thickness, buccodental status, and glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with consecutive cases attended in an outpatient clinic (n = 69). Medical and clinical dental history, HbA1c, lipid profile, treatment period, and daily insulin dosage were recorded. Sociodemographic data and anthropometrical measurements were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Doppler real-time ultrasound was performed by a single experienced vascular radiologist blinded to the study. Assessment of buccodental status was done by the Maxillofacial Unit of the Pediatrics Hospital, and an oral scrape culture was collected. RESULTS: The mean age was 11.7 ± 3.0 years, with diabetes 5.1 ± 3.3 years. Mean HbA1c was 8.5 ± 1.7%. Primary teeth were present in 52.2% and bacterial plaque in 94.2%. Buccodental conditions featured caries (63.8%), gingivitis (84%), and enamel demineralization (26.1%): white spot lesions (18.8%) and cavitated lesions (7.3%). Bacteria associated with caries were found in 44.1%. Patients in the highest HbA1c tertile (>8.5%) had greater frequency of buccodental conditions and were positive for Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans; also, cIMT increased and vessel compliance decreased compared to those in the lowest tertile (<7.0%) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: More buccodental conditions and carotid intima-media thickness increase appeared in the patients with HbA1c level > 8.5%, suggesting onset of atherosclerosis. The correlation between buccodental status and HbA1c values may indicate the connection between inflammatory states of atherosclerosis and type 1 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the effect of metformin on the concentrations of resistin and other markers of insulin resistance or inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines, body weight, HbA1c, among others) in minors with glucose intolerance. Patients aged 4 to 17 years with glucose intolerance were studied. They were randomized to receive 850 mg of either metformin or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks, during which all followed an iso-caloric diet and an exercise program. High sensitivity C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL1-beta, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid profile and transaminases were measured at the beginning and at the end of the period. Fifty-two patients were included, 11.9±2.6 years old; 28 (12 males/16 females) received metformin and 24 placebo (11 males/13 females). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (except for body mass index, which in the metformin group was slightly higher). Percentage weight loss was greater in the metformin group (-5.86% vs 2.75%, P<.05). At study end, there were statistically significant differences in resistin concentrations, even after adjusting for confounding variables (F=7.714; P<.006). Also, metformin was associated with a significant decrease in HOMA-IR index (P=.032) and HbA1c levels (P=.001), but no change was observed in the concentration of other markers of inflammation. Metformin resulted in significant reductions of plasma resistin levels in minors with glucose intolerance. This change is independent of its effects on body weight. In contrast, metformin did not alter the concentration of inflammatory markers.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 03/2012; 61(9):1247-55. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rare cause of congental adrenal hyperplasia is 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. It results in sexual infantilism, primary amenorrhea in females, pseudohermaphroditism in males, hypertension, and hypokalemia. We studied two female siblings from a rural community in Mexico. The cause of consultation was primary amenorrhea. The proband had low levels of estrogen, progesterone and cortisol. Deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone levels were elevated. The proband was homozygous for a transversion of cytosine to thymine at exon 4 (CGA→TGA), causing a premature stop codon at position 239 (R239X). Analysis of family members showed the presence of this heterozygous mutation in the mother, father and one healthy sibling. In summary, we describe a Mexican family with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency due to R239X mutation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children.
VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6-8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10(-5)), decreased HDL-C levels (β = -6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = -0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls.
Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e49818. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise.
This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m². The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8-568.6) vs. (460.8 (298.2-742.1), p<0.0001)). The delta (final-basal) log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04), mean maximal heart rate (MHR) (r = 0.54, p<0.0001), mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002), delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001) and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006). A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r² = 0.64, p<0.0001).
Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e38022. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults.
Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64-5.53; P = 4 × 10⁻⁴ in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group.
Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39037. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the waist circumference cutoff points established by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) with those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for the screening of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.
This study comprised a subsample of the ENSANUT 2006. Subjects without diabetes and hypertension and non-pregnant women were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were compared using AUC and the positive likelihood ratio test [LR(+)].
In subjects aged ≥40 years, sensitivity for detection of diabetes and hypertension was higher for the IDF thresholds (85.34 and 86.87%, respectively) compared with those of the AHA/NHLBI (59.49 and 52.41%, respectively). LR(+) were higher for IDF thresholds compared with AHA/NHLBI. Similar results in subjects aged ≥65 years were observed.
The measurement of abdominal obesity defined by the IDF was a better screening tool for diabetes and hypertension, considering that initially a high sensitivity and low cost tool at population level is required.
Salud publica de Mexico 01/2012; 54(1):13-9. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premature atherosclerosis in patients with SLE is partially explained by traditional risk factors; therefore, we aimed to identify lupus-related risk factors for coronary artery calcifications.
An inception cohort of 139 lupus patients (93% females) was screened for coronary artery calcifications using Multidetector CT, after 5.1 years of follow-up. Clinical and immunological variables and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed longitudinally. Also, 100 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Correlates for calcifications were analysed in lupus patients, including levels of lipids and inflammatory molecules in samples obtained at enrolment, mid-term follow-up and at screening.
At enrolment, lupus patients were 27.2 (9.1) years of age and with a disease duration of 5.4 (3.8) months. Calcifications were detected in 7.2% of patients and 1% of controls [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.7, 95% CI 1.05, 336.3, P = 0.02]. In lupus, calcifications were detected since the age of 23 years and from 3 years of diagnosis. Patients with calcifications were older, post-menopausal, and had higher levels of serum apolipoprotein B and Framingham risk scores (P < 0.05). Lupus-related factors identified included age at diagnosis, IgG aCLs, cumulative lupus activity, length of moderate/severe activity and cumulative dose of prednisone and CYC (P < 0.05). Use of anti-malarials was protective (P = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis showed as predictors of calcification: disease duration (OR 15.1, 95% CI 2.6, 87.2), age at enrolment (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.7, 43.0) and SLEDAI 2000 update (SLEDAI-2K) mean area under the curve (OR 12.3, 95% CI 2.5, 61.8). Longitudinal analyses of lipids and inflammatory molecules did not differ between patients.
Disease activity is a potentially modifiable risk factor for coronary artery calcifications in SLE. Therefore, management of traditional risk factors plus tight control of lupus activity, including the use of anti-malarials, is recommended.