[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The use of alternative medicine is on the rise worldwide. Mangifera indica kernel has been used as a diarrhoea remedy. Studies have demonstrated its mechanism of action to be via the sympathomimetic pathway. Possible adverse effects on the cardiovascular system were however unknown. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the in-vitro effects of Mangifera indica kernel extract (MIE) on myocardial activity. Methodology: The dose-related effects of MIE were tested on isolated rabbit hearts, and the mechanism of action verified. This was then compared against its efficacy on the jejunum, and the likelihood of myocardial toxicity investigated. Results: MIE significantly enhanced myocardial contractility with no effect on the frequency. However, the doses required for this effect were much higher than those that would be required to treat diarrhoea. Discussion: The use of MIE as a diarrhoea remedy is probably safe on the cardiovascular system provided the dose is maintained within an anti-diarrhoeal therapeutic window.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of infant mortality. This article analyzes its contribution towards the realization of millennium development goal number 4 (MDG-4).
A PubMed search using keywords acute infant diarrhea together with prevalence, management, or prevention 23 of the 634 generated articles were reviewed for inclusion.
WHO first expressed concern about diarrhoeal mortality in 1979. Two decades later it reported diarrhoea as the second leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. The annual death toll of 1.5 million is greater than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. Short term repercussions (dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, shock, death) plus long-term diminished fitness index, cognitive function, and school performance have major impact on society. Ever since its 1971 success, Oral Rehydration Therapy has been the cornerstone treatment of diarrhoea. Decreased compliance has been recorded worldwide with Kenya ranking first. Intravenous therapy is useful in preventing complications while anti-diarrhoeals and anti-microbials, are indicated in severe cases. Zinc supplementation has also proven effective, and is recommended along with rehydration. Furthermore, immunization and good hygiene prevent faecal-oral transmissions.
MDG-4 aims to reduce childhood mortality by 2/3 by 2015. Studies, however, show minimal progress, and the target is likely to be missed. Efforts must therefore be made to review existing strategies and formulate newer ones. Research priorities need to move away from perceived 'killer diseases' since far more children die in a day than have ever died from avian influenza for example.
Pan African Medical Journal 10/2011; 8(1):47. DOI:10.4314/pamj.v8i1.71164