[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal cysts are commonly encountered, slow-growing superficial cysts in the hair-bearing areas of the body, and are usually discovered in the second and fourth decades of life. These cysts tend to be superficial, meaning that they can be easily found by ultrasound and digital palpation at a moderate degree of growth. However, we found a huge testicular cyst that went undetected until old age. In this report, we describe the interesting case of a patient in whom the right testis was totally replaced with an epidermal cyst. The cyst was found by ultrasonography and further evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. We performed orchiectomy under the impression of an epidermal cyst. The pathologic report confirmed this clinical impression. Over 24 months of follow-up, we did not find any recurrence of a growing mass on the testis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising from the minor salivary glands in the aerodigestive system, most frequently the hard palate. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection, and the efficacy of radiotherapy has not been confirmed. A 54-year-old male presenting with a mass at the base of the tongue performed transoral laser microsurgery. The pathologic diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Complete surgical excision was performed via transoral robotic surgery without a flap reconstruction of the surgical defect. Without complications of bleeding or injury to the hypoglossal nerve, proper surgical margins were obtained, and no recurrence was found after 6 months after surgery. The patient did not complain of dysphagia or aspiration. We conclude that, in surgery for tongue base tumors with unknown malignant potential, transoral robotic surgery can be considered for achieving a definite resection avoiding a mandibulotomy without complications of dysphagia or aspiration after confirmation of malignancy with a frozen biopsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is very rare and its optimal treatment remains controversial. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) is a rare tumor that usually presents with hepatic metastasis. Hepatic failure due to tumor progression is the major cause of death in cases of pNET. To date, no report has described a case of ISCM from pNET. Although spinal cord metastasis of a solid tumor is uncommon, it is a critical condition that can cause a potentially irreversible loss of neurologic function. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with leg weakness and voiding difficulty, and was found to have ISCM from pNET. Surgical treatment prevented further neurological deterioration. This is the first case report of ISCM from pNET.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of an ethanol extract derived from the marine brown alga Dictyopteris undulata against human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The Dictyopteris undulata extract (DUE) showed cytotoxic activity against SW480 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibition of cell viability at a concentration of 40 mu g/mL. DUE also induced programmed cell death in SW480 cells, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, DNA fragmentation, an increase in the population of apoptotic sub-G1 phase cells, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Moreover, DUE significantly modulated the expression of apoptosisassociated proteins, resulting in a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 expression and an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein expression, as well as the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, DUE showed apoptotic cell death in two other colon cancer cell lines, SNU407 and HT29. These observations suggest that DUE may prove useful as a therapeutic agent for the attenuation of colon cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the cytoprotective effects of americanin B, a lignan compound, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage. Americanin B decreased the level of DPPH radicals, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Americanin B also attenuated DNA damage induced by H2O2 treatment, as shown by the inhibition of formation of comet tails, indicative of DNA strand breakage, and prevented the oxidation of protein and peroxidation of lipid, as determined by protein carbonyls and 8-isoprostane. Furthermore, americanin B protected against H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death, as determined by a reduction in the numbers of apoptotic bodies stained with Hoechst 33342. These findings suggest that americanin B protects cells against oxidative damage by exerting antioxidant effects and inhibiting apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Previously we demonstrated that phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) protected human HaCaT keratinocytes against ultraviolet B (UVB, 280-320 nm)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The current study investigated whether phloroglucinol could similarly protect the mouse skin against UVB-induced oxidative tissue damage in vivo.
Materials and methods:
Male 7-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into the following untreated normal control, phloroglucinol only-treated, vehicle plus UVB (30 or 60 mJ/cm(2))-exposed, and phloroglucinol (10 or 50 mg/ml) plus UVB (30 or 60 mJ/cm(2))-treated groups. Following UVB exposure, phloroglucinol or phosphate buffered saline vehicle was applied to the dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 days. Studies were conducted at 24 h after the last of the UVB exposures. Histopathological analyses of dorsal skin lesions were performed on all mice. In addition, the levels of UVB-provoked injury to cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids were detected by levels of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), protein carbonyls, and 8-isoprostane. Apoptosis were assessed by using western blot for B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax) and activated caspase-3 expression, by using immunohistochemistry.
UVB radiation increased the thickness of the epidermis and the dermis, and also stimulated the accumulation of mast cells in the irradiated skin. However, treatment with phloroglucinol significantly decreased all of these parameters. Furthermore, phloroglucinol decreased UVB-provoked injury to cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids; down-regulated the expression of phospho-histone H2A.X in the injured skin; and reduced the UVB-generated levels of 8-oxoG, protein carbonyls, and 8-isoprostane, which are all markers of oxidative stress. In addition, phloroglucinol attenuated the UVB-induced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax protein, and activated caspase-3.
These results suggest that phloroglucinol safeguards the mouse skin against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 04/2014; 90(10). DOI:10.3109/09553002.2014.911990 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytoprotective effects of 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin against injury and death of human HaCaT keratinocytes resulting from ultraviolet B radiation were investigated. 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin exhibited the capacity to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ultraviolet B radiation. 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin also attenuated ultraviolet B-induced oxidative macromolecular damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins, decreasing the number of DNA strand breaks, the level of 8-isoprostane (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation), and the level of protein carbonylation. Moreover, 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin rescued HaCaT cells from ultraviolet induced cell death, by downregulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin has the potential to be developed as a medical agent against ROS-mediated skin diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytoprotective mechanism of 7, 8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) against oxidative stress-induced cell damage with respect to its stimulatory effect on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme, was investigated in the present study. Up-regulation of HO-1 expression by DHF was both dose and time dependent in lung fibroblast V79-4 cells. DHF also increased the protein expression level of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and induced the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, leading to elevated HO-1 expression. The siNrf2 RNA-transfection attenuated HO-1 expression induced by DHF treatment. In addition, DHF induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), while U0126 (a specific pharmacological inhibitor of ERK kinase) abrogated DHF-activated Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. This suggests that DHF increased the levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 via ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DHF significantly prevented the reduction of cell viability in response to oxidative stress; however, U0126 attenuated the protective effect of DHF. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DHF protected cells from oxidative stress via the activation of an ERK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical and CT findings in patients with small-bowel Anisakiasis.
Nineteen patients with small-bowel Anisakiasis and who underwent abdominal CT between 2005 and 2012 were enrolled in our study. All of these patients were diagnosed using either a serologic test for Anisakiasis (n = 18) or by pathology (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed in order to determine the clinical findings. CT images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists to evaluate the characteristics of the involved bowel wall and the ancillary findings.
All patients had presented with the acute onset of severe abdominal pain as well as a history of having recently eaten raw fish. The mean time interval from eating the fish to the onset of abdominal pain was 1.7 days. Eighteen patients were treated conservatively and experienced resolution of their symptoms within seven days of hospitalization. One patient underwent surgical exploration for presumed small-bowel ischemia. The sites of involvement included the ileum (16/19, 84%) and jejunum (3/19, 16%). All patients had circumferential bowel-wall thickening (mean, 0.8 cm) with an intermediate length of involved bowel (mean, 7.9 cm). Small-bowel obstruction occurred in 16 patients (84%). The target sign was present in 17 patients (89%), ascites, particularly in the perilesional area, in 16 patients (84%), and mesenteric edema in 15 patients (79%).
Small-bowel Anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in order to avoid unnecessary surgery when patients present with abdominal pain after having recently eaten raw fish, concentric bowel-wall thickening with the target sign in the ileum, perilesional ascites, as well as bowel obstruction seen on CT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenol compound, on oxidative damage induced by UVB exposure on human HaCaT cells. In a cell-free system, CGA scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B (UVB). Furthermore, CGA absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280-320 nm). UVB exposure resulted in damage to cellular DNA, as demonstrated in a comet assay; pre-treatment of cells with CGA prior to UVB irradiation prevented DNA damage and increased cell viability. Furthermore, CGA pre-treatment prevented or ameliorated apoptosis-related changes in UVB-exposed cells, including the formation of apoptotic bodies, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and alterations in the levels of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. Our findings suggest that CGA protects cells from oxidative stress induced by UVB radiation.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics 02/2014; 22(2):136-42. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2014.006 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the protective properties of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA) isolated from Cladophora wrightiana Harvey (a green alga) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage to human HaCaT keratinocytes. DBA exhibited scavenging actions against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, the superoxide anion, and the hydroxyl radical. Furthermore, DBA decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by hydrogen peroxide or UVB treatment of the cells. DBA also decreased the UVB-augmented levels of phospho-histone H2A.X and the extent of comet tail formation, which are both indications of DNA damage. In addition, the compound safeguarded keratinocytes from UVB-induced injury by reversing the production of apoptotic bodies, overturning the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2, and decreasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2-associated X and cleaved caspase-3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DBA isolated from a green alga protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical stage of gastric cancer is currently assessed by computed tomography. Accurate clinical staging is important for the tailoring of therapy. This study evaluated the accuracy of clinical N staging using stomach protocol computed tomography.
Between March 2004 and November 2012, 171 patients with gastric cancer underwent preoperative stomach protocol computed tomography (Jeju National University Hospital; Jeju, Korea). Their demographic and clinical characteristics were reviewed retrospectively. Two radiologists evaluated cN staging using axial and coronal computed tomography images, and cN stage was matched with pathologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of stomach protocol computed tomography for clinical N staging and clinical characteristics associated with diagnostic accuracy were evaluated.
The overall accuracy of stomach protocol computed tomography for cN staging was 63.2%. Computed tomography images of slice thickness 3.0 mm had a sensitivity of 60.0%; a specificity of 89.6%; an accuracy of 78.4%; and a positive predictive value of 78.0% in detecting lymph node metastases. Underestimation of cN stage was associated with larger tumor size (P<0.001), undifferentiated type (P=0.003), diffuse type (P=0.020), more advanced pathologic stage (P<0.001), and larger numbers of harvested and metastatic lymph nodes (P<0.001 each). Tumor differentiation was an independent factor affecting underestimation by computed tomography (P=0.045).
Computed tomography with a size criterion of 8 mm is highly specific but relatively insensitive in detecting nodal metastases. Physicians should keep in mind that computed tomography may not be an appropriate tool to detect nodal metastases for choosing appropriate treatment.
Journal of Gastric Cancer 09/2013; 13(3):149-56. DOI:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.3.149
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old male presented with painful swelling of the sinus tarsi that occurred during daily activities. Diagnostic imaging suggested the presence of a large synovial osteochondromatosis that blocked subtalar motion with deformity of the adjacent bone. The large bony mass was excised, and normal subtalar motion was achieved.
The Journal of foot and ankle surgery: official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons 01/2013; 52(2). DOI:10.1053/j.jfas.2012.11.017 · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Korea. Colonoscopic screening with removal of adenomas is an effective strategy for reducing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate predictable factors of early colorectal cancer (ECC) in patients with advanced adenoma (AA), tumor in situ (Tis), and submucosal (SM) cancer diagnosed after colonoscopic polypectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical staging of gastric cancer appears to be important more and more for tailored therapy. This study aimed to verify the accuracy of clinical T staging in a low-volume institute.
We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data of gastric cancer patients who underwent resection. A total of 268 patients of gastric cancer were enrolled from March 2004 to June 2012. These demographics, tumor characteristics, and clinical stages were analyzed for identification of diagnostic value of clinical T staging.
The predictive values for pT1 of endoscopy and computed tomography were 90.0% and 89.4%, respectively. In detail, the predictive values of endoscopy for pT1a, pT1b, and pT2 or more were 87%, 58.5%, and 90.6%, respectively. The predictive values of computed tomography for pT1a, pT1b, and pT2 or more were 68.8%, 73.9%, and 84.4%, respectively. The factors leading to underestimation of pT2 or more lesions by gastroscopy were the middle third location, the size greater than 2 cm, and younger age. Those for overestimation of pT1 lesion by computed tomography were male, age more than 70 years, elevated type, and size greater than 3 cm.
Diagnostic accuracy of early gastric cancer was 90%, which is comparable to those of high volume center. In patients with early gastric cancer, limited gastrectomy or minimal invasive surgery can be safely introduced at a low volume center also. However, the surgeon of low-volume institute should consider the accuracy of clinical staging before extending the indication of limited treatment.
Journal of Gastric Cancer 12/2012; 12(4):223-31. DOI:10.5230/jgc.2012.12.4.223
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignancy arising from the mesenchymal tissues of the spermatic cord, epididymis, testis, and testicular tunica, and accounts for approximately 7% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. It often occurs in children but is known to have a better prognosis than disease at other urogenital sites. Patients typically present with painless unilateral scrotal swelling like a solid testicular tumor. However, we report an unusual case of delayed diagnosis of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma accompanied by epididymitis manifesting an painful scrotal swelling.