Zaisi Liu

Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (4)11.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An antigen-capture enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimised AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79) TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs.
    Journal of virological methods 11/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens in 1988. No field cases of ALV-J infection or tumors in layer chickens were observed worldwide until 2004. However, layer flocks in China have experienced outbreaks of this virus in recent years. The molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains isolated from layer flocks was investigated. The env genes of 77.8% (21/27) of the ALV-J layer isolates with a high degree of genetic variation were significantly different from the env genes of the prototype strain of ALV-J (HPRS-103) and American and Chinese strains from meat-type chickens (designated ALV-J broiler isolates). A total of 205 nucleotides were deleted from the 3' untranslated region of 89.5% (17/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates. Approximately 94.7% (16/17) of the layer isolates contained a complete E element of 146 to 149 residues. The U3 sequences of 84.2% (16/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates displayed less than 92.5% sequence homology to those of the ALV-J broiler isolates, although the transcriptional regulatory elements that are typical of avian retroviruses were highly conserved. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in the env gene, the U3 region, and the E element of most of the ALV-J layer isolates were detected. These results suggested that the env gene, E element, and U3 region in the ALV-J layer isolates have evolved rapidly and were significantly different from those of the ALV-J broiler isolates. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of layer tumor diseases induced by ALV-J.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2011; 50(3):953-60. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) preferentially induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in meat-type birds. Since 2008, many clinical cases of hemangioma rather than ML have frequently been reported in association with ALV-J infection in Chinese layer flocks. Three ALV-J strains associated with hemangioma were isolated and their proviral genomic sequences were determined. The three isolates, JL093-1, SD09DP03 and HLJ09MDJ-1, were 7,670, 7,670, and 7,633 nt in length. Their gag and pol genes were well conserved, with identities of 94.5-98.6% and 97.1-99.5%, respectively, with other ALV-J strains at the amino acid level (aa), while the env genes of the three isolates shared a higher aa identity with the env genes of other hemangioma strains than with those of ML strains. Interestingly, two novel 19-bp insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and 5' UTR, most likely derived from other retroviruses, were found in all the three isolates, thereby separately introducing one E2BP binding site in the U3 region in the LTR and RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIB and core promoter motif ten elements in the 5' UTR. Meanwhile, two binding sites in the U3 LTRs of the three isolates for NFAP-1 and AIB REP1 were lost, and a 1-base deletion in the E element of the 3' UTR of JL093-1 and SD09DP03 introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. In addition to the changes listed above, the rTM of the 3' UTR was deleted in each of the three isolates. Our study is the first to discovery the coexistence of two novel insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and the 5' UTR of ALV-J associated with hemangioma symptoms, and the transcriptional regulatory elements introduced should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of hemangioma.
    Virology Journal 12/2011; 8:552. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in 1989, preferentially infects meat-type birds. However, layer flocks in China have experienced outbreaks of this virus since 2008. To understand the genetic diversity of ALV-J in Chinese layers, we compared and analyzed the GP85 gene sequences of 106 ALV-J isolates that were isolated between 1999 and 2010 in Mainland China. The GP85 gene sequences of 41 layer isolates collected from 9 provinces of China between 2008 and 2010 belonged to two separate, highly diverse subgroups and were differentiated from meat-type chicken isolates. When compared to all meat-type isolates from China, Subgroup 1 exclusively contained current layer isolates and seemed to be dominant; all the isolates in this subgroup exhibited gene diversity, and many unique amino acid mutations were present. In contrast, the viruses in Subgroup 2 were perfectly conserved and shared high identity with the prototype meat-type chicken ALV-J strain HPRS-103. The two subgroups contained only two concurrent mutations at the same position. Moreover, most of the isolates in Subgroup 1 had two additional glycosylation sites (at positions 101 and 191) when compared with those in Subgroup 2. Our study provides evidence for the coexistence of two extremely different ALV-J subgroups in Chinese layers from 2008 to 2010, supporting the need for vaccine development and purification measures to prevent ALV-J infection in layers in China.
    Veterinary Microbiology 10/2011; 156(1-2):205-12. · 3.13 Impact Factor