[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MMP-2 and its specifi c regulators, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern and if the profiles are related to prognosis and clinical outcome of prostate cancer (PCa).
MMP-2, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8 expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in freshly frozen malignant and benign tissue specimens collected from 79 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomies. The control group consisted of 11 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The expression profile of the MMP-2 and its regulators were compared using Gleason scores, pathological stage, pre-operative PSA levels and the fi nal outcome of the PCa.
The analysis of 79 specimens of PCa revealed that MMP-2, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8 were underexpressed at 60.0%, 72.2%, 62.0% and 65.8%, respectively, in malignant prostatic tissue in relation to BPH samples. Considering the prognostic parameters, we demonstrated that high Gleason score tumors (≥ 7) overexpressed MMP-2 (p = 0.048) and TIMP-2 (p = 0.021), compared to low Gleason score tumors (< 7).
We have demonstrated that MMP-2 and its regulators are underexpressed in PCa. Alternatively, overexpression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was related to higher Gleason score tumors. We postulate that alterations in metalloproteinase expression may be important in the control of tissue homeostasis related to prostate carcinogenesis and tumor behavior.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 03/2012; 38(2):167-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial nephrectomy has become the standard of care for renal tumors less than 4 cm in diameter. Controversy still exists, however, regarding the best surgical approach, especially when minimally invasive techniques are taken into account. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) has emerged as a promising technique that helps surgeons achieve the standards of open partial nephrectomy care while offering a minimally invasive approach. The objective of the present study was to describe our initial experience with robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and extensively review the pertinent literature.
Between August 2009 and February 2010, eight consecutive selected patients with contrast enhancing renal masses observed by CT were submitted to RALPN in a private institution. In addition, we collected information on the patients ' demographics, preoperative tumor characteristics and detailed operative, postoperative and pathological data. In addition, a PubMed search was performed to provide an extensive review of the robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy literature.
Seven patients had RALPN on the left or right sides with no intraoperative complications. One patient was electively converted to a robotic-assisted radical nephrectomy. The operative time ranged from 120 to 300 min, estimated blood loss (EBL) ranged from 75 to 400 mL and, in five cases, the warm ischemia time (WIT) ranged from 18 to 32 min. Two patients did not require any clamping. Overall, no transfusions were necessary, and there were no intraoperative complications or adverse postoperative clinical events. All margins were negative, and all patients were disease-free at the 6-month follow-up.
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a feasible and safe approach to small renal cortical masses. Further prospective studies are needed to compare open partial nephrectomy with its minimally invasive counterparts.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 01/2012; 38(1):69-76.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Becoming proficient in laparoscopic surgery is dependent on the acquisition of specialized skills that can only be obtained from specific training. This training could be achieved in various ways using inanimate models, animal models, or live patient surgery--each with its own pros and cons. Currently, there are substantial data that support the benefits of animal model training in the initial learning of laparoscopy. Nevertheless, whether these benefits extent themselves to moderately experienced surgeons is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine if training using a porcine model results in a quantifiable gain in laparoscopic skills for moderately experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
Six urologists with some laparoscopic experience were asked to perform a radical nephrectomy weekly for 10 weeks in a porcine model. The procedures were recorded, and surgical performance was assessed by two experienced laparoscopic surgeons using a previously published surgical performance assessment tool. The obtained data were then submitted to statistical analysis.
With training, blood loss was reduced approximately 45% when comparing the averages of the first and last surgical procedures (P=0.006). Depth perception showed an improvement close to 35% (P=0.041), and dexterity showed an improvement close to 25% (P=0.011). Total operative time showed trends of improvement, although it was not significant (P=0.158). Autonomy, efficiency, and tissue handling were the only aspects that did not show any noteworthy change (P=0.202, P=0.677, and P=0.456, respectively).
These findings suggest that there are quantifiable gains in laparoscopic skills obtained from training in an animal model. Our results suggest that these benefits also extend to more advanced stages of the learning curve, but it is unclear how far along the learning curve training with animal models provides a clear benefit for the performance of laparoscopic procedures. Future studies are necessary to confirm these findings and better understand the impact of this learning tool on surgical practice.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 12/2011; 26(3):278-82. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of MMP-9 and its specific inhibitors, TIMP-1 and RECK, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern and if the profiles are related to prognosis and clinical outcome in prostate cancer (PC).
MMP-9, TIMP-1, and RECK expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in fresh-frozen malignant tissue specimens collected from 79 patients with clinically localized PC submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP). Frozen benign prostatic tissue from another 10 men with prostate cancer, also submitted to RP, was analyzed to determine if the profile of gene expression was maintained. The control group consisted of 11 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
In the tumor samples, MMP-9 was overexpressed by 9.2 times, and TIMP-1 and RECK were underexpressed (0.75 and 0.80 times, respectively). Overexpression of MMP-9 was significantly related to PSA levels above 10 ng/mL (p=0.033). In addition, MMP-9 overexpression was related to biochemical recurrence, with a marginal statistical significance (p=0.089). MMP-9 was also overexpressed in benign tissues of patients with PC, as were TIMP-1 and RECK, in contrast to their underexpression in tumor samples.
Our results show that MMP-9 is overexpressed and its negative regulators are underexpressed in PC tissue, emphasizing a possible role of MMP-9 in the carcinogenesis process. Additionally, we noticed a relationship between MMP-9 overexpression and increased levels of PSA, an important prognostic factor. In benign tissue adjacent to tumors, the MMP-9 equilibrium is likely maintained because the expression of its negative regulators is preserved.
The International journal of biological markers 11/2011; 26(4):255-61. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder exstrophy (BE) is an anterior midline defect that causes a series of genitourinary and muscular malformations, which demands surgical intervention for correction. Women with BE are fertile and able to have children without this disease. The purpose of this study is to assess the sexual function and quality of life of women treated for BE.
All patients in our institution treated for BE from 1987 to 2007 were recruited to answer a questionnaire about their quality of life and pregnancies.
Fourteen women were submitted to surgical treatment for BE and had 22 pregnancies during the studied period. From those, 17 pregnancies (77.2%) resulted in healthy babies, while four patients (18.1%) had a spontaneous abortion due to genital prolapse, and there was one case (4.7%) of death due to a pneumopathy one week after delivery. There was also one case (5.8%) of premature birth without greater repercussions. During pregnancy, three patients (21.4%) had urinary tract infections and one patient (7.14%) presented urinary retention. After delivery, three patients (21.4%) presented temporary urinary incontinence; one patient (7.14%) had a vesicocutaneous fistula and seven patients (50%) had genital prolapsed. All patients confirmed to have achieved urinary continence, a regular sexual life and normal pregnancies. All patients got married and pregnant older than the general population.
BE is a severe condition that demands medical and family assistance. Nevertheless, it is possible for the bearers of this condition to have a satisfactory and productive lifestyle.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 09/2011; 37(5):605-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the correlation between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) expression and prognosis in prostate cancer.
TGF-β1 expression levels were analyzed using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to amplify RNA that had been isolated from fresh-frozen malignant and benign tissue specimens collected from 89 patients who had clinically localized prostate cancer and had been treated with radical prostatectomy. The control group consisted of li patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. The expression levels of TGF-β1 were compared between the groups in terms of Gleason scores, pathological staging, and prostate-specific antigen serum levels.
In the majority of the tumor samples, TGF-β1 was underexpressed 67.0% of PCa patients. The same expression pattern was identified in benign tissues of patients with prostate cancer. Although most cases exhibited underexpression of TGF-β1, a higher expression level was found in patients with Gleason scores ≥ 7 when compared to patients with Gleason scores < 7(p = 0.002). Among the 26 cases of TGF-β1 overexpression, 92.3% had poor prognostic features.
TGF-β1 was underexpressed in prostate cancers; however, higher expression was observed in tumors with higher Gleason scores, which suggests that TGF-β1 expression may be a useful prognostic marker for prostate cancer. Further studies of clinical specimens are needed to clarify the role of TGF-β1 in prostate carcinogenesis.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2011; 66(7):1143-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several different methods of teaching laparoscopic skills have been advocated, with virtual reality surgical simulation (VRSS) being the most popular. Its effectiveness in improving surgical performance is not a consensus yet, however. The purpose of this study was to determine whether practicing surgical skills in a virtual reality simulator results in improved surgical performance.
Fifteen medical students recruited for the study were divided into three groups. Group I (control) did not receive any VRSS training. For 10 weeks, group II trained basic laparoscopic skills (camera handling, cutting skill, peg transfer skill, and clipping skill) in a VRSS laparoscopic skills simulator. Group III practiced the same skills and, in addition, performed a simulated cholecystectomy. All students then performed a cholecystectomy in a swine model. Their performance was reviewed by two experienced surgeons. The following parameters were evaluated: Gallbladder pedicle dissection time, clipping time, time for cutting the pedicle, gallbladder removal time, total procedure time, and blood loss.
With practice, there was improvement in most of the evaluated parameters by each of the individuals. There were no statistical differences in any of evaluated parameters between those who did and did not undergo VRSS training, however.
VRSS training is assumed to be an effective tool for learning and practicing laparoscopic skills. In this study, we could not demonstrate that VRSS training resulted in improved surgical performance. It may be useful, however, in familiarizing surgeons with laparoscopic surgery. More effective methods of teaching laparoscopic skills should be evaluated to help in improving surgical performance.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 10/2010; 24(11):1845-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To ensure patient safety and surgical efficiency, much emphasis has been placed on the training of laparoscopic skills using virtual reality simulators. The purpose of this study was to determine whether laparoscopic skills can be objectively quantified by measuring specific skill parameters during training in a virtual reality surgical simulator (VRSS). Materials and Methods: Ten medical students (with no laparoscopic experience) and ten urology residents (PGY3-5 with limited laparoscopic experience) were recruited to participate in a ten-week training course in basic laparoscopic skills (camera, cutting, peg transfer and clipping skills) on a VRSS. Data were collected from the training sessions. The time that individuals took to complete each task and the errors that they made were analyzed independently. Results: The mean time that individuals took to complete tasks was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05), with the residents being faster than the medical students. The residents' group also completed the tasks with fewer errors. The majority of the subjects in both groups exhibited a significant improvement in their task completion time and error rate. Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that laparoscopic skills can be objectively measured in a VRSS based on quantified skill parameters, including the time spent to complete skill tasks and the associated error rate. We conclude that a VRSS is a feasible tool for training and assessing basic laparoscopic skills.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 39(3):371-376.