[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven dextran types, displaying from 3 to 20% α(1→3) glycosidic linkages, were synthesized in vitro from sucrose by mutants of dextransucrase DSR-S from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F, obtained by combinatorial engineering. The structural and physicochemical properties of these original biopolymers were characterized. When asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled with multiangle laser light scattering was used, it was determined that weight average molar masses and radii of gyration ranged from 0.76 to 6.02 × 10(8) g·mol(-1) and from 55 to 206 nm, respectively. The ν(G) values reveal that dextrans Gcn6 and Gcn7, which contain 15 and 20% α(1→3) linkages, are highly branched and contain long ramifications, while Gcn1 is rather linear with only 3% α(1→3) linkages. Others display intermediate molecular structures. Rheological investigation shows that all of these polymers present a classical non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. However, Gcn_DvΔ4N, Gcn2, Gcn3, and Gcn7 form weak gels, while others display a viscoelastic behavior that is typical of entangled polymer solutions. Finally, glass transition temperature T(g) was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Interestingly, the T(g) of Gcn1 and Gcn5 are equal to 19.0 and 29.8 °C, respectively. Because of this low T(g), these two original dextrans are able to form rubber and flexible films at ambient temperature without any plasticizer addition. The mechanical parameters determined for Gcn1 films from tensile tests are very promising in comparison to the films obtained with other polysaccharides extracted from plants, algae or microbial fermentation. These results lead the way to using these dextrans as innovative biosourced materials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Films of acid-hydrolyzed hydroxypropylated pea starch with average molecular weight M w ranging from 3.3 x 10 (4) g/mol to 1.6 x 10 (6) g/mol were prepared from 25% (w/w) solution by casting. The structure of the films was investigated by means X-ray diffraction and calorimetry, evidencing a B-type crystalline structure. In similar drying conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% of relative humidity, the crystallinity varied from 24% for the low molecular weight (A5) to almost none for the highest molecular weight (A160). The influence of the drying temperature was also investigated. A reduction of the crystallinity from 16% to almost none was found when increasing temperature from 25 to 65 degrees C. The glass transition temperature ( T g) at different water contents was determined. The difference of T g between the first and the second scan was interpreted by changes in the water distribution between phases into the B-type crystalline structure. Mechanical properties of the films determined by tensile tests and by DMTA in the glassy state showed no effect of the average molecular weight or of crystallinity. In contrast, thermomechanical experiments by DMTA showed that the average molecular weight of the sample influenced the mechanical relaxation and the moduli in the rubbery state.