[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than BAL cells in the earlier intratracheal study.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2011; 745(1-2):58-64. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.10.011 · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of bus-garage and waste-collection workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from diesel exhaust by the measurement of levels of seven urinary PAH metabolites: 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1+9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene. Subjects and methods One urine sample from each of 46 control persons, and one pre-shift and two post-shift spot urine samples from 32 exposed workers were obtained in winter and in summer. The metabolites were analysed after enzymatic hydrolysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Results The sum of seven PAH metabolites (mean 3.94±3.40 and 5.60±6.37 μmol/mol creatinine in winter and summer, respectively) was higher [P=0.01, degrees of freedom (df) =61.2 and P=0.01, df=67.6 in winter and summer, respectively] in the exposed group than in the control group (mean 3.18±3.99 and 3.03±2.01 μmol/mol creatinine in winter and summer, respectively). The mean concentrations of 2-naphthol among exposed and controls ranged between 3.34 and 4.85 μmol/mol creatinine and 2.51 and 2.58 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively (P PP=0.002, df=78) and in summer (P Conclusions The urinary hydroxy-metabolites of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene showed low exposure to diesel-derived PAHs; however, it was higher in exposed workers than in control group. Urinary PAH monohydroxy-metabolites measured in this study did not correlate with the PAHs in the air samples, reported earlier, in 2002 and 2003.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 01/2004; 77(1):23-30. DOI:10.1007/s00420-003-0477-y · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to diesel exhaust was evaluated in summer and winter by measuring vapour and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifteen PAHs were simultaneously determined from the air samples obtained from truck drivers collecting household waste and maintenance personnel at a waste handling centre. The major compounds analysed from the personal air samples of exposed workers were naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The total PAH exposure (sum of 15 PAHs) of garbage truck drivers ranged from 71 to 2,660 ng m(-3) and from 68 to 900 ng m-3 in the maintenance work. The exposure of garbage truck drivers to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) ranged from the mean of 0.03 to 0.3 ng m(-3) whereas no B[a]P in control samples or in those collected from maintenance workers was detected. A statistically significant difference in diesel-derived PAH exposure between the garbage truck drivers and the control group in both seasons (in summer p = 0.0022, degrees of freedom (df) 70.5; and in winter p < 0.0001, df = 80.4) was observed. Also, a significant difference in PAH exposure between the garbage truck drivers and the maintenance workers (in summer p < 0.0001, df = 50.1; and in winter p < 0.0001, df = 44.2) was obtained.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes an experimental study of terpene emission rates during fresh pine and spruce sawing and processing. Total terpene emission was determined by summing the product of the exhaust airflow rate and the mean concentration in the exhaust. Terpene concentrations were measured at fixed sampling points between the sawing lines. Terpene emission during pine sawing was found to be around 10 times greater than that during spruce sawing. The emission rates given here can be used to predict emission rates for various production rates. The predicted emission rates can be used in mass balance models to predict concentrations or required airflow rates to achieve the target concentration level.
AIHAJ - American Industrial Hygiene Association 03/2001; 62(2):172-5. DOI:10.1080/15298660108984620
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied customer exposure during refueling by collecting air samples from customers' breathing zone. The measurements were carried out during 4 days in summer 1996 at two Finnish self-service gasoline stations with "stage I" vapor recovery systems. The 95-RON (research octane number) gasoline contained approximately 2.7% methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), approximately 8.5% tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), approximately 3.2% C6 alkyl methyl ethers (C6 AMEs), and 0.75% benzene. The individual exposure concentrations showed a wide log-normal distribution, with low exposures being the most frequent. In over 90% of the samples, the concentration of MTBE was higher (range <0.02-51 mg/m3) than that of TAME. The MTBE values were well below the short-term (15 min) threshold limits set for occupational exposure (250-360 mg/m3). At station A, the geometric mean concentrations in individual samples were 3.9 mg/m3 MTBE and 2. 2 mg/m3 TAME. The corresponding values at station B were 2.4 and 1.7 mg/m3, respectively. The average refueling (sampling) time was 63 sec at station A and 74 sec at station B. No statistically significant difference was observed in customer exposures between the two service stations. The overall geometric means (n = 167) for an adjusted 1-min refueling time were 3.3 mg/m3 MTBE and 1.9 mg/m3 TAME. Each day an integrated breathing zone sample was also collected, corresponding to an arithmetic mean of 20-21 refuelings. The overall arithmetic mean concentrations in the integrated samples (n = 8) were 0.90 mg/m3 for benzene and 0.56 mg/m3 for C6 AMEs calculated as a group. Mean MTBE concentrations in ambient air (a stationary point in the middle of the pump island) were 0.16 mg/m3 for station A and 0.07 mg/m3 for station B. The mean ambient concentrations of TAME, C6 AMEs, and benzene were 0.031 mg/m3, approximately 0.005 mg/m3, and approximately 0.01 mg/m3, respectively, at both stations. The mean wind speed was 1.4 m/sec and mean air temperature was 21 degreesC. Of the gasoline refueled during the study, 75% was 95 grade and 25% was 98/99 grade, with an oxygenate (MTBE) content of 12.2%.
Environmental Health Perspectives 02/1999; 107(2):133-40. DOI:10.2307/3434370 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Customer exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) during refueling with gasoline of high MTBE content was studied. Field measurements were carried out in southwestern Finland at two self-service stations during two seasons: May-June and October 1995. Both stations were equipped with stage I vapor recovery systems. The exposure of customers was studied by collecting air samples from their breathing zones into charcoal tubes during refueling with reformulated gasolines of 95, 98, or 99 research octane number (RON), all of which contained 11 percent MTBE. The samples were collected on four consecutive days during each sampling period. Each sample represented a single refueling operation. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection. The concentrations of MTBE in the individual samples ranged from
Applied Occupational and Enviromental Hygiene 10/1998; 13(10-10):727-732. DOI:10.1080/1047322X.1998.10390149
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ambient air concentrations of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) were monitored in the vicinity of two self-service stations in May–June and October, 1995. These stations (one urban and one roadside) were located in southwestern Finland and were equipped with “stage I” vapour recovery systems. All the gasoline blends dispensed during the study (95, 98 and 99 RON) contained 11% MTBE. The measurements were carried out 24 h day-1 at stationary sampling points located at the four main compass points on the service station perimeter (about 50 m from the centre of the forecourt). The air samples were collected in charcoal tubes and analysed in laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection. The concentrations in individual samples ranged from 0.5 to 121 μg m-3, and the highest daily concentrations were usually obtained at the downwind sampling points. The arithmetic mean concentrations for each of the four-day sampling periods were: 7.5 μg m-3 (station 1/May–June), 4.1 μg/m3 (station 1/October), 12.4 μg m-3 (station 2/June) and 14.1 μg m-3 (station 2/October). The mean concentrations measured in the centre of the pump island (only daytime sampling) ranged from 247 to 1347 μg m -3. The levels of MTBE are station-specific and dependent on many factors, such as volumes of gasolines sold, wind speed, exhaust emissions from passing traffic, and deliveries of gasoline to the station. The mean wind speeds were between 0.7 and 1.5 m s-1, and the temperatures were above 22°C in summer and about 10°C in October. The volume of gasoline sold at the urban service station, station 2, was twice that at the roadside service station, station 1. There was one road with high traffic density adjacent to station 1 and two such roads at station 2. Gasoline was delivered twice to station 1 and 3 times to station 2 during the study.