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Publications (3)18.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of AMPK-α and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-α suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-α (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-α. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-α blocked tube formation. We conclude that activation of AMPK-α during mitochondrial oxidative stress inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, which impairs phenotypic switching necessary for the growth of blood vessels.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A well-developed coronary collateral circulation improves the morbidity and mortality of patients following an acute coronary occlusion. Although regenerative medicine has great potential in stimulating vascular growth in the heart, to date there have been mixed results, and the ideal cell type for this therapy has not been resolved. To generate induced vascular progenitor cells (iVPCs) from endothelial cells, which can differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or endothelial cells (ECs), and test their capability to stimulate coronary collateral growth. We reprogrammed rat ECs with the transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc. A population of reprogrammed cells was derived that expressed pluripotent markers Oct4, SSEA-1, Rex1, and AP and hemangioblast markers CD133, Flk1, and c-kit. These cells were designated iVPCs because they remained committed to vascular lineage and could differentiate into vascular ECs and VSMCs in vitro. The iVPCs demonstrated better in vitro angiogenic potential (tube network on 2-dimensional culture, tube formation in growth factor reduced Matrigel) than native ECs. The risk of teratoma formation in iVPCs is also reduced in comparison with fully reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). When iVPCs were implanted into myocardium, they engrafted into blood vessels and increased coronary collateral flow (microspheres) and improved cardiac function (echocardiography) better than iPSCs, mesenchymal stem cells, native ECs, and sham treatments. We conclude that iVPCs, generated by partially reprogramming ECs, are an ideal cell type for cell-based therapy designed to stimulate coronary collateral growth.
    Circulation Research 11/2011; 110(2):241-52. · 11.09 Impact Factor
  • Frazier Nyasulu, Kelly Stevanov, Rebecca Barlag
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    ABSTRACT: Using a conductivity sensor, a temperature sensor, and a datalogger, fundamental factors that affect conductivity are explored. These factors are (i) concentration, (ii) temperature, (iii) ion charge, and (iv) size and or mass of anion. In addition, the conductivities of a number of other solutions are measured. This lab has been designed to provide students opportunities to construct knowledge.Keywords (Audience): First-Year Undergraduate/General
    Journal of chemical education 09/2010; 87. · 1.00 Impact Factor