Eduard Tornero

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (12)19.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gram-positive cocci are commonly isolated in orthopaedic implant infections and their resistance to β-lactams and fluoroquinolones is increasing. The high oral bioavailability of linezolid makes it an attractive oral alternative to glycopeptides and its use has increased in the last decade. To evaluate experience with linezolid in orthopaedic implant infections a systematic review of the literature available in English was undertaken. Only those articles describing series of ≥10 patients with acute or chronic orthopaedic implant infections treated with linezolid and with a clear definition of diagnosis and outcome were selected. A total of 293 patients (79.9% had prosthetic joint infections) were analysed in the 10 articles included. The overall remission rate with at least 3 months of follow-up was 79.9%, depending on whether the implant was removed or not (94% versus 69.9%). The addition of rifampicin was described in only two articles and no significant difference was observed. Adverse events were frequent during prolonged administration of linezolid (34.3%), requiring treatment discontinuation in 12.8%. The most common event was anaemia (13.4%) followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (11.1%). In conclusion, linezolid seems a good oral treatment alternative for orthopaedic implant infections due to Gram-positive cocci resistant to β-lactams and fluoroquinolones. However, close monitoring of adverse events is required.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2014; 69 Suppl 1:i47-i52. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of isolated microorganisms according to the Gram stain and the type of antibiotic received on the outcome of early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR).
    Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Debridement and prosthesis retention, combined with a prolonged antibiotic regimen including rifampicin, is an accepted therapeutic approach when the duration of symptoms is less than 4 weeks and there are no radiological signs of loosening. The outcome of patients managed with this strategy has been previously assessed in several articles with success rates of 60-90%. This study aims to review the clinical experience with linezolid in 3 different hospitals from Spain and France in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) managed with debridement, retention of the implant and treated with linezolid with or without rifampicin.
    Infectious diseases and therapy. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to review the characteristics and outcome of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to Enterococcus sp collected in 18 hospitals from 6 European countries. Patients with a PJI due to Enterococcus sp diagnosed between January 1999 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant information about demographics, co-morbidity, clinical characteristics, microbiological data, surgical treatment and outcome was registered. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed. A total of 203 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) was 70.4 (13.6) years. In 59 cases the infection was diagnosed within the first 30 days (29.1%) from arthroplasty, in 44 (21.7%) between 31-90 days, in 54 (26.6%) between 91 days and 2 years and in 43 (21%) after 2 years. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 176 cases (89%). In 107 (54%) patients the infection was polymicrobial. Any co-morbidity (OR: 2.53, CI95%: 1.18-5.40, P=0.01), and fever (OR: 2.65, CI95%: 1.23-5.69, P=0.01) were independently associated with failure. The only factor associated with remission was infections diagnosed later than 2 years (OR: 0.25, CI95%: 0.09-0.71, P=0.009). In conclusion, prosthetic joint infections due to Enterococcus sp were diagnosed within the first 2 years from arthroplasty in >70% of the cases, almost 50% had ≥1 co-morbidity and were frequently polymicrobial infections (54%). The global failure rate was 44% and patients with co-morbidities, fever, and diagnosed within the first 2 years from arthroplasty had a poor prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 06/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to determine the potential influence of blood transfusion and the length of storage of packed red blood cells (RBC) on prosthetic joint infection after primary knee arthroplasty. From November 2007 to November 2009, all variables potentially associated with deep infection were registered in 1331 consecutive patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. Infection was diagnosed in 32 (2.4%) patients. After adjusting for important variables, blood transfusion with RBCs stored >14days was the strongest predictive factor for prosthetic joint infection within 90days after primary knee arthroplasty (OR: 5.9, 95% CI: 2.6-13.2, P < 0.001). Blood saving techniques are desirable to reduce perioperative blood transfusion.
    The Journal of arthroplasty. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To compare the specific characteristics, the outcome and the predictors of failure of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to methicillin-resistant (MRS) and methicillin- susceptible staphylococci (MSS) treated with open debridement and retention of the implant. Material and methods. PJI due to MRS or MRS prospectively registered in a database from 1999 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results. During the study period, 96 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The mean follow-up period was 3.9 years and at least 2 years in all patients. The failure rate was 25%. The only variable significantly associated with failure in the global cohort was polymicrobial infection (59.3% vs. 40.7%, p=0.036). Thirty-four (35.4%) patients had an infection due to MRS and 62 (63.6%) due to MSS. Among MSS infections, 95.2% corresponded to primary arthroplasties while 29.4% of PJI due to MRS were after revision arthroplasties (p=0.001). CRP was significantly higher in PJI due to MSS (5.2 mg/dl vs 9.1 mg/dL, p=0.02).The failure rate (20% vs 27%, p=0.62) was very similar in MSS and MRS groups. Conclusion. PJI due to MRS were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci, more frequent after revision arthroplasties, had a lower inflammatory response, and had a similar failure rate than MSS infections.
    Revista espanola de quimioterapia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia 12/2013; 26(4):353-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the standard treatment of infection at site of a TKA. We show a European multicenter study, with 44 patients affected by TKA infection, treated with a two-stage revision using** knee during the first stage.
    EBJIS, Prague; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic systemic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD), liver cirrhosis, neoplasia, etc. have been clearly associated with high rates of SWI. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these observations are still under investigation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem in our society. Many of these patients will require an arthroplasty and it appears that the prosthetic infection risk for these types of patients is much higher than in the normal population. The risk of complications due to infection seems to be lower in patients with kidney transplants than in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Both prophylaxis and treatment of infection in patients with CKD should be carried out with a strict monitoring of potentially nephrotoxic antibiotics. The literature on the prognosis and risk of infection in patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant is scarce and occasionally contradictory. The optimal time for the surgery should be determined by taking into account the immunological state of the patient and should be avoided, as much as possible, during the first year after the HSCT. Child's classification system is the most widely used method of stratifying the surgical risk for patients with cirrhosis; the infection appeared to be associated in a statistically significant way with advanced age and a Child B pre-operative classification. The prevention of prosthetic joint infections in HIV-infected patients should not be significantly different from the prevention for any other patient. Those patients that receive adequate antiretroviral treatment and periodic laboratory control show infection rates and periprosthetic complications that are similar to those for patients not affected by HIV. Therefore, the patient's level of immunodeficiency is the most important prognostic factor for prosthetic infection. The particular immunological condition of these patients can lead to infections due to particular microorganisms that immunocompetent patients do not have to deal with. Of all possibilities, because of their frequency and difficulty to treat, infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and fungus are highlighted.
    The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2013; 7:211-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Purposes: To evaluate the specific characteristics, outcome, and predictors of failure of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) treated with open debridement and retention of the implant. Methods: PJI due to S. aureus or CNS prospectively registered in a database from 1999 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. During the study period, 106 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up period was 3.8 years and for at least 2 years in all patients. The failure rate was 23.6% (25 out of 106). The only variable significantly associated with failure in the global cohort was polymicrobial infection (38.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.024). Fifty-seven (53.8%) patients had an infection due to S. aureus and 49 (46.2%) due to CNS. Among S. aureus infections, 95% corresponded to primary arthroplasties while 98% of PJIs due to CNS were after revision arthroplasties (p<0.001). C-reactive protein was significantly higher in PJI due to S. aureus (9.5 mg/dl vs. 4.9 mg/dl, p = 0.007). The rate of methicillin-resistance (8.8% vs. 59.2%, p<0.001) and fluoroquinolone-resistance (15.8% vs. 34.7%, p = 0.005) was significantly higher in CNS infections. The global failure rate was higher in S. aureus infections (28% vs. 18.3. p = 0.26). In S. aureus infections, patients diagnosed within the first 15 days after joint arthroplasty (p = 0.031) and with bacteremia (p = 0.046) had poor pro-gnosis. In CNS infections only the location of the prosthesis (knee 27.6% vs. hip 5%, p = 0.045) was associated with failure. Conclusions: PJIs due to S. aureus were mainly in primary arthroplasties; they had a higher inflammatory response; and the strains were more susceptible to fluoroquinolones and methicillin than CNS infections. S. aureus infections had a higher failure rate than CNS infections, however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were few factors associated with failure and they were different in S. aureus and CNS infections.
    The International journal of artificial organs 10/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although HIV-infected patients are at greater risk of presenting with ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head, there have been concerns about whether total hip arthroplasty (THA) may have worse outcomes than expected. From the Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery database we identified all patients who had undergone THA because of ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head from January 2001 until March 2010. Patient's diagnosis of HIV infection was confirmed at the time of arthroplasty by cross-matching with the HIV unit database. For every THA in HIV-infected patients, two THAs in patients not known to be HIV-infected, with the same diagnosis of ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head and having undergone surgery over the same period, were randomly selected. THAs were compared in HIV- and non-HIV-infected patients for surgical procedure, in-patient stay and long-term prognosis. There were 18 THAs in 13 HIV-infected patients and 36 THAs in 27 non-HIV-infected patients. No significant differences were observed in the mean time spent in surgery (106 vs. 109 minutes, respectively; P = 0.66), the need for red cell transfusion (1 vs. 4, respectively; P = 0.48) or the mean duration of hospitalization (7.8 vs. 9.4 days, respectively; P = 0.48). The two groups showed similar postoperative functional results, which were maintained until the end of the follow-up period (median 3.3 years in the HIV-positive group and 5.8 years in the HIV-negative group). Our study suggests that the outcome of THA in HIV-positive patients is not worse than that of HIV-negative patients, although future research on larger numbers of patients is required to confirm this.
    HIV Medicine 04/2012; 13(10):623-9. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review patients with a hematogenous and early post-surgical prosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to S. aureus treated with debridement and retention of the implant and to compare their clinical characteristics and outcome. From January 2000 all patients with a prosthetic joint infection treated in a single-center were prospectively registered and followed-up. All potentially variables associated with outcome were recorded. For the present study, cases with a hematogenous or early post-surgical PJI due to S. aureus treated with debridement and at least 2 years of follow-up were reviewed. Cox regression model to identify factors associated with outcome were applied. 12 hematogenous and 53 early post-surgical PJI due to S. aureus were included. Number of patients presenting with fever, leucocyte count, C-reactive protein concentration, and the number of bacteremic patients were significantly higher in hematogenous infections while the number of polymicrobial infections was lower in hematogenous than in early post-surgical infections. The global failure rate in hematogenous and early post-surgical PJI was 58.7% and 24.5%, respectively (p=0.02). The Cox regression model identified hematogenous infections (OR: 2.57, CI95%: 1.02-6.51, p=0.04) and the need of a second debridement (OR: 4.61, CI95%: 1.86-11.4, p=0.001) as independent predictors of failure. Hematogenous infections were monomicrobial and had more severe symptoms and signs of infection than early post-surgical PJI. Hematogenous PJI due to S. aureus, using debridement with implant retention, had a worse outcome than early post-surgical infections.
    The International journal of artificial organs 11/2011; 34(9):863-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between intraoperative cultures during hip arthroplasty, the different patient characteristics, and the risk of developing a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A prospective observational study was performed. Patients who underwent elective THA from March 2007 to March of 2011 were included. Three samples were taken just after arthrotomy: synovial fluid inoculated into blood culture flasks (SF), a tissue sample (TS), and a swab of peri- prosthetic tissue (S). Patients received standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The PJI rate within the first 3 months after arthroplasty was recorded. 402 prostheses were included in the study. Contamination rate of synovial fluid was 10.2%. The most frequent isolated microorganism was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (32 out of 41). Body mass index (BMI) was the only host characteristic associated with positive intraoperative culture (p=0.009). The PJI rate was 3.7%. Variables associated with PJI in the univariate and multivariate analysis were: age =67 years (p=0.012 OR: 5.35 (1.45-19.81); CI95%) and a BMI =35 (p=0.002, OR: 7.7 (2.12-27.85) CI95%). PJI rate among patients with BMI<35 with negative and positive intraoperative cultures was 3% and 2.7%, respectively, however, the rate among patients with BMI = 35 was 15% and 25%, respectively. A BMI =35 was associated with a higher risk of positive intraoperative culture during hip arthroplasty. In addition, a BMI ≥35 was independently associated with a high risk of PJI and the highest rate was documented among obese patients with positive intraoperative cultures.
    The International journal of artificial organs 11/2011; 34(9):870-5. · 1.76 Impact Factor