[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of an adventure sprint race (ASR) on T-cell proliferation, leukocyte count and muscle damage was evaluated. Seven young male runners completed an ASR in the region of Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil. The race induced a strong leukocytosis (6.22±2.04×103 cells/mm3 before vs 14.81±3.53×103 cells/mm3 after the race), marked by a significant increase of neutrophils and monocytes (P<0.05), but not total lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. However, the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation was increased (P=0.025) after the race, which contradicted our hypothesis that ASR, as a high-demand competition, would inhibit T-cell proliferation. A positive correlation (P=0.03, r=0.79) was observed between the proliferative response of lymphocytes after the race and the time to complete the race, suggesting that the proliferative response was dependent on exercise intensity. Muscle damage was evident after the race by increased serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (24.99±8.30 vs 50.61±15.76 U/L, P=0.003). The results suggest that humoral factors and substances released by damaged muscle may be responsible for lymphocyte activation, which may be involved in muscle recovery and repair.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2014; DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20143187 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of the knee flexion on muscle activation and transmissibility during whole body vibration is controversially discussed in the literature. In this study, 34 individuals had electromyography activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis and the acceleration assessed while squatting with 60° and 90° of knee flexion either with or without whole-body vibration (WBV). The conditions were maintained for 10s with 1min of rest between each condition. The main findings were (1) the larger the angle of knee flexion (90° vs. 60°), the greater the EMG (p<0.001), with no difference on acceleration transmissibility; (2) for both angles of knee flexion, the addition of WBV produced no significant difference in EMG and higher acceleration compared to without WBV (p<0.001). These results suggest that the larger the knee flexion angle (60° vs. 90°), the greater the muscle activation without acceleration modification. However, the addition of WBV increases the transmissibility of acceleration in the lower limbs without modification in EMG of vastus lateralis.
Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology 05/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.03.014 · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40 Hz; amplitude = 4 mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 ± 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ≥60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (Δ). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 09/2012; 45(12). DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500139 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simão AP, Avelar NC, Tossige-Gomes R, Neves CD, Mendonça VA, Miranda AS, Teixeira MM, Teixeira AL, Andrade AP, Coimbra CC, Lacerda AC. Functional performance and inflammatory cytokines after squat exercises and whole-body vibration in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis.
To investigate the effects of squat exercises combined with whole-body vibration on the plasma concentration of inflammatory markers and the functional performance of elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
Clinical, prospective, randomized, single-blinded study.
Exercise physiology laboratory.
Elderly subjects with knee OA (N=32) were divided into 3 groups: (1) squat exercises on a vibratory platform (platform group, n=11); (2) squat exercises without vibration (squat group, n=10); and (3) the control group (n=11).
The structured program of squat exercises in the platform and squat groups was conducted 3 times per week, on alternate days, for 12 weeks.
Plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2) were measured using immunoassays (the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire was used to evaluate self-reported physical function, pain, and stiffness. The 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, and gait speed were used to evaluate physical function.
In the platform group, there were significant reductions in the plasma concentrations of the inflammatory markers sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) and self-reported pain (P<.05) compared with the control group, and there was an increase in balance (P<.05) and speed and distance walked (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively). In addition, the platform group walked faster than the squat group (P<.01).
The results suggest that whole-body vibration training improves self-perception of pain, balance, gait quality, and inflammatory markers in elderly subjects with knee OA.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 04/2012; 93(10):1692-700. DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.04.017 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 2997-3003, 2012-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of passive warm-up (PW), whole-body vibration (WBV), and control (C) on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. Six recreationally trained men performed a 30-second sprint cycle test after the 3 aforementioned conditions; each test was carried out on a different day after balanced-order experimental tests. TheWBV consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). The PW consisted of 30 minutes of PW using a thermal blanket on the thighs and legs (35 W). The C consisted of 30 minutes of no warm-up with the subject lying down. Motor neuron excitability from the vastus lateralis muscle, evaluated by electromyography (EMG), was determined before exercise at rest and during sprint cycle exercise. Blood lactate levels (BLs), evaluated by spectroscopy, and muscle temperature (MT) of the thigh, estimated indirectly by measuring skin temperature, were determined at following time points: before exercise at rest (before and after experimental conditions), immediately, and 3 minutes after the 30-second sprint cycle test. Peak power, relative power, relative work, time of peak power, and pedaling cadence were significantly higher in theWBV compared with that for C (p , 0.05). Although MT was significantly greater in PW compared with that inWBV and C before exercise (p, 0.01), no significant differences were observed between the experimental conditions for BL immediately after sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.35) and in EMG during sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.16). Thus, it is plausible to suggest WBV as a method for an acute increase in high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise for athletes immediately before competition or training.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 01/2012; 26(11):2997-3003. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318243fb48 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study objectives were to evaluate the effects of adding whole-body vibration to squat training on functional performance and self-report of disease in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
This was a prospective, randomized trial in which selected variables were evaluated at three periods: 3 weeks prior to the training, immediately prior, and after the end of the training.
Twenty-three (23) elderly subjects were evaluated using four functional performance tests: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Get Up and Go Test (TGUG), Chair Stand Test (CST), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and a self-report of the status of disease (WOMAC).
The intervention lasted for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. The participants were randomized into two groups: (1) squat training with whole-body vibration, and (2) squat training without vibration.
Although there was no statistical difference in functional performance and self-report of disease status between the groups, performance in all the functional tests and in all the domains of WOMAC improved in the vibration group compared to their initial status. In the exercise group, performance improved only two tests (BBS and 6MWT), and there was a reduction in self-reported pain (WOMAC) compared to their initial status.
Although the addition of whole-body vibration to squat training failed to result in a significant improvement in functional performance and self-reported status of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly, the intragroup results suggest that whole-body vibration may represent a feasible and effective way of improving the functionality and self-perception of disease status in older adults with knee OA.
Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 11/2011; 17(12):1149-55. DOI:10.1089/acm.2010.0782 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avelar, NCP, Simão, AP, Tossige-Gomes, R, Neves, CDC, Mezencio, B, Szmuchrowski, L, Coimbra, CC, and Lacerda, ACR. Oxygen consumption and heart rate during repeated squatting exercises with or without whole-body vibration in the elderly. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3495-3500, 2011-The aim of this study was to investigate whether vibration plus squatting would increase cardiovascular demand to the optimal exercise limits needed for the prescription of cardiovascular training. Oxygen consumption, measured breath by breath by a portable gas analysis system, and heart rate (HR), measured using an HR monitor, were evaluated in 18 elderly individuals, 15 women and 3 men with a mean age of 72 ± 6 years. These variables were measured simultaneously and at the same time points in each subject during rest and randomly during the performance of squatting exercises (8 series of 40 seconds, with 40 seconds of rest between series of performing squats in 3-second cycles with 10-60° of flexion, a total of 5 repetitions for 40 seconds) with or without vibration at a frequency of 40 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm, separated by at least 1 day. Associating whole-body vibration with squatting exercise resulted in an additional increase of around 20% in oxygen consumption and 7.5% in the HR recorded during exercise. However, during squatting exercise with vibration, the increase achieved in oxygen consumption was limited to around 2 metabolic equivalents, and mean HR represented around 56% of the predicted maximum HR for age. The results of this study show that, despite the fact that vibration increased oxygen consumption and HR during the performance of squatting exercise, the minimum standards of intensity for the prescription of physical exercise with the specific objective of improving cardiorespiratory fitness were not achieved. Therefore, a protocol such as that used in the study does not meet the threshold for cardiovascular training prescription.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 11/2011; 25(12):3495-500. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182176664 · 2.08 Impact Factor