[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup.
Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV).
After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders.
At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 11/2011; 6(1):29.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delirium is a rather common complication among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs), and rather than a single entity, it can be considered a spectrum of diseases where, besides overt cases, there are also many subsyndromal forms. Although there are many data about ICU delirium, there are few data concerning this complication in patients transferred from the ICU to a step-down unit (SDU) once clinically stable.
With the present study, we wanted to assess the incidence of and risk factors for delirium and subsyndromal forms and their impact on clinical outcome in a group of patients transferred from an ICU to an SDU.
All patients transferred from an ICU to our SDU over a 2-year period were screened for delirium and subsyndromal delirious forms using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, a simple tool already validated in the ICU. The following data were also recorded: demographic data, severity score (SAPS II), reason for admission to the SDU, length of stay, death rate, use of sedatives, impact of delirium on weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV).
Among the 234 patients, the incidence of delirium and subsyndromal forms was 7.6% and 20%, respectively. Subsyndromal forms diagnosed at admission represented a risk factor for the subsequent development of delirium (odds ratio [OR], P < .0001). A previous episode of brain failure during ICU stay and older age were risks factors for the development of subsyndromal forms, whereas not needing MV was a protective factor. Delirium significantly prolonged the stay in the SDU but did not influence survival and the process of weaning from MV. Overall, the percentage of patients with an abnormal Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score at discharge (5%) was reduced compared with that recorded at admission (18%).
Delirium may still occur after discharge from an ICU in patients who are transferred to an SDU. The strategy of care adopted in the SDU seems to positively affect the recovery from a delirious state. Patients with subsyndromal forms should be promptly recognized and treated because of the risk of developing delirium. Weaning from MV is not hindered by delirium.
Journal of critical care 09/2009; 25(1):136-43. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attention of international agencies and scientific community on mobbing (bullying) and work-related stress is increasing. However, research on gender differences and etiologic agents is still limited. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of mobbing and work-related stress in an Italian case series. Between 2001 and 2009, at the Occupational Medicine Unit of our Institution we examined 345 outpatients (197 women and 148 men) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of "mobbing syndrome" was formulated, according to international criteria (ICD-I0 and DSM-IV), in a minority of cases: 35 subjects. In the other workers, we found pre-existing psychiatric conditions (not related to work), or altered relationships dynamics with the colleagues. Significant gender differences emerged among people with "mobbing syndrome": there was a high prevalence of women (65%), with medium to high level of education; the most affected age group was between 34 and 45 years; several occupations were involved, with a clear preponderance of office workers. Women are mostly harassed for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors; men for the content of their work. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential prerogative to contrast mobbing; this can be realized, at a preventive level, only through effective information and training for workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during the work.
Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia 33(4):409-13.