[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to propose a tentative model for d-glucose turnover in human saliva. The whole saliva and the saliva from parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands were collected by use of the Salivette™.
The saliva glucose concentration was measured by the hexokinase method, saliva bacteria glycolysis by use of d-[5-(3)H] glucose, and the saliva ATP content by the luciferase method. The concentration of glucose amounted to 43.9±6.3 (n=29), 197.5±17.3 (n=29), 104.0±12.4 (n=27) μM in whole saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva, respectively. The rate of d-glucose utilization by oral bacteria at a physiological concentration of d-glucose in saliva (50μM) was estimated at 0.047±0.003 (n=11) nmol/min per 10(6) bacteria. Unstimulated salivary d-glucose turnover rate, as calculated from the amount of glucose secreted in saliva which comes from parotid and submandibular and sublingual glands represented 214.6±19.1%/min. In order for salivary d-glucose production to match bacterial utilization of the hexose, the total number of oral bacteria was estimated at about 2.0×10(9) bacteria, in fair agreement with previously published data.
This study thus provides support for a tentative model for d-glucose turnover in human saliva.
Archives of oral biology 10/2013; 58(10):1265-70. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects.
Molecular Medicine Reports 10/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the light of previous findings, the major aim of the present study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of various Citrullus colocynthis L. seed extracts on such variables as glucose tolerance, body weight gain, pancreas, liver, kidney, testis, epididymal fat and diaphragm muscle weight, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in an animal model of type-1 diabetes mellitus, i.e. streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For purpose of comparison, a comparable study was conducted in normal rats. Both the immediate and long-term effects of the plant extracts were assessed in rats injected daily, up to 3 weeks after the start of the experiments. The results of this study reinforce the view that both a crude aqueous extract and a n-butanol extract from the Citrullus colocynthis L. seeds may represent the best candidates in order to eventually identify a component suitable for the treatment of both type-1 and type-2 diabetic subjects.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Second generation n3-PUFA-depleted rats represent a good animal model of metabolic syndrome as they display several features of the disease such as liver steatosis, visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of our study was to investigate the influence of n3-PUFA deficiency on hepatic glycerol metabolism. Aquaglyceroporin 9 (AQP9) allows hepatic glycerol transport and consequently contributes to neoglucogenesis. AQP9 knockout mice display hypertriacyl-glycerolemia, one of the hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome. Our data show reduced AQP9 expression at the protein level in n3-PUFA-depleted rats, without any changes at the mRNA levels. [U-¹⁴C]glycerol uptake was increased in hepatocytes from n3-PUFA-depleted animal cells. The apparent discrepancy between decreased AQP9 protein expression, and increased [U-¹⁴C]glycerol uptake could be explained by an observed increase in glycerol kinase activity.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2012; 29(6):1121-6. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) is a glycerol transporter expressed in adipocytes. Its expression has been shown to be modulated in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. An animal model displaying several features of metabolic syndrome was used to study the AQP7 expression at both mRNA and protein level and glycerol flux in adipocytes. Second generation n3-PUFA depleted female rats is a good animal model for metabolic syndrome as it displays characteristic features such as liver steatosis, visceral obesity, and insulin resistance. Our data show a reduced expression of AQP7 at the protein level in adipose tissue from n3-PUFA-depleted rats, without any changes at the mRNA levels. [U-(14)C]-Glycerol uptake was not modified in adipocytes from n3-PUFA-depleted animals.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 01/2012; 44(1):28-32. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACGROUNS/AIMS: Several insulinotropic agents were recently reported to cause β-cell swelling. The possible participation of AQP7 to water transport was investigated in AQP7(+/+) or AQP7(-/-) mice.
Aquaporin expression, insulin secretion, cell swelling and electrical activity were investigated in pancreatic islets.
RT-PCR revealed the expression of AQP5 and AQP8 mRNA. Double immunofluorescent labeling indicated their presence in β-cells. Whilst basal insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets incubated at 2.8 mM D-glucose did not differ between AQP7(+/+) or AQP7(-/-) mice, the secretion of insulin evoked by the omission of 50 mM NaCl, the substitution of 50 mM NaCl by 100 mM glycerol or a rise in D-glucose concentration to 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM was severely impaired in the islets from AQP7(-/-) mice. Yet, exposure of β-cells to either the hypotonic medium or a rise in D-glucose concentration caused a similar degree of swelling and comparable pattern of electrical activity in cells from AQP7(+/+) and AQP7(-/-) mice. Both the cell swelling and change in membrane potential were only impaired in AQP7(-/-) cells when exposed to 50 mM glycerol.
It is proposed, therefore, that AQP7 may, directly or indirectly, play a role at a distal site in the exocytotic pathway.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2012; 29(1-2):65-74. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.
International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2012; 2012:962012. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-derived H(2)O(2) was recently proposed to act, in several cells, as the signal mediating the activation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) under a variety of physiological conditions. The present study aims at investigating whether a similar situation prevails in insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 and rat β-cells. Exogenous H(2)O(2) (100 to 200 μM) at basal glucose concentration (1.1 to 2.8 mM) stimulated insulin secretion. The inhibitor of VRAC, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) inhibited the secretory response to exogenous H(2)O(2). In patch clamp experiments, exogenous H(2)O(2) was observed to stimulate NPPB-sensitive anion channel activity, which induced cell membrane depolarization. Exposure of the BRIN-BD11 cells to a hypotonic medium caused a detectable increase in intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a universal NOX inhibitor. NOX inhibitors such as DPI and plumbagin nearly totally inhibited insulin release provoked by exposure of the BRIN-BD11 cells to a hypotonic medium. Preincubation with two other drugs also abolished hypotonicity-induced insulin release and reduced basal insulin output: 1) N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor that serves as general antioxidant and 2) betulinic acid a compound that almost totally abolished NOX4 expression. As NPPB, each of these inhibitors (DPI, plumbagin, preincubation with NAC or betulinic acid) strongly reduced the volume regulatory decrease observed following a hypotonic shock, providing an independent proof that VRAC activation is mediated by H(2)O(2). Taken together, these data suggest that NOX-derived H(2)O(2) plays a key role in the insulin secretory response of BRIN-BD11 and native β-cells to extracellular hypotonicity.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 11/2011; 463(2):377-90. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time course for changes in food intake, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and HOMA index was monitored over a period of 8 weeks in rats exposed from the 8th week after birth to diets containing either starch or fructose and sunflower oil. In two further groups of rats exposed to the fructose-rich diet part of the sunflower oil was substituted by either salmon oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 fatty acids or safflower oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated ω6 fatty acids. Despite lower food intake, the gain in body weight was higher in fructose-fed rats than in starch-fed rats. The supplementation of the fructose-rich diet by either ω3 or ω6 fatty acids lowered both food intake and body weight gain. The measurements of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA index and insulinogenic index performed after overnight starvation were in fair agreement with those recorded at the occasion of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, with higher values for plasma glucose concentration and HOMA index in the fructose-fed rats exposed to the sunflower oil (with or without enrichment with ω6 fatty acids) than in the starch-fed rats exposed to the sunflower oil or fructose-fed rats exposed to a diet enriched with ω3 fatty acids. Such was also the case for the measurements of glycated albumin at sacrifice. Moreover, the insulinogenic index was lower in the fructose-fed rats with or without dietary enrichment in ω6 fatty acids than in the fructose-fed rats with dietary enrichment in ω3 fatty acids. The elucidation of the biochemical determinants of the later difference requires further investigations in isolated pancreatic islets.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2011; 29(1):113-8. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present series of experiments aim mainly at investigating the possible influence of changes in the com-position of dietary lipids (sunflower oil, salmon oil, safflower oil) upon the metabolic syndrome found in rats exposed to a fructose-rich diet. For purpose of comparison, a control group of rats received the sunflower oil diet with substitution of fructose by starch. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, performed after overnight starvation fifty days after the start of the experiments at the 6th week after birth, indicated, as expected, impaired tolerance to glucose and deterioration of insulin sensitivity (HOMA index), without changes in the insulinogenic index, when comparing the fructose-fed rats to the starch-fed rats both exposed to the sunflower oil diet. In the fructose-fed rats, enrichment of the diet by long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 fatty acids supplied by salmon oil, a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity was opposed, in term of glucose homeostasis, by a decreased secretory response to glucose of insulin-producing cells. Last, in the fructose-fed rats, the partial substitution of sunflower oil by safflower oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated ω6 fatty acids further deteriorated glucose homeostasis, with a higher mean HOMA index and a severe decrease of the insulinogenic index. These findings justify further investigations on such items as the time course for changes in metabolic and hormonal variables and both the metabolic and secretory responses of isolated pancreatic islets to selected nutrient secretagogues.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2011; 28(6):1087-92. · 1.96 Impact Factor