Alan R Sinaiko

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

Are you Alan R Sinaiko?

Claim your profile

Publications (140)686.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the associations of adiposity and insulin resistance with measures of vascular structure and function in children. Study design: A cross-sectional study included 252 children (age 15.1 ± 2.4 years; body mass index percentile 68.2 ± 26.5%; Tanner 2-5). Measurements of body fat percentage were obtained with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with computed tomography. Insulin resistance was measured with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Vascular measurements for endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]), vascular stiffness (carotid incremental elastic modulus), and pulse wave velocity were analyzed by tertiles of adiposity and insulin resistance. Additional analyses with ANCOVA and linear regression were adjusted for Tanner, sex, race, and family relationship; FMD was also adjusted for baseline artery diameter. Results: FMD was positively associated with high adiposity (body mass index, body fat percentage, and VAT) (P < .01 all). Insulin resistance was not associated with FMD. cIMT was significantly, positively related to obesity, VAT, and insulin resistance (P < .05 all). No differences in carotid incremental elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity were observed in relation to adiposity or insulin resistance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that adiposity is associated with higher FMD, and insulin resistance and VAT are associated with higher cIMT in children. Further research is needed to clarify the progression of these relations.
    The Journal of pediatrics 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.08.034 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.34, P < .001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.26, P < .001), triglycerides (r = 0.19, P = .01), and insulin sensitivity (r = 0.22, P = .02) as well as CSs (r = 0.15, P = .02). After adjustment for BMI all parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of pediatrics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.07.053 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood pressure (BP) is routinely measured in children and adolescents during primary care visits. However, elevated BP or hypertension is frequently not diagnosed or evaluated further by primary care providers. Barriers to recognition include lack of clinician buy-in, competing priorities, and complexity of the standard BP tables. We have developed and piloted TeenBP- a web-based, electronic health record (EHR) linked system designed to improve recognition of prehypertension and hypertension in adolescents during primary care visits. Important steps in developing TeenBP included the following: review of national BP guidelines, consideration of clinic workflow, engagement of clinical leaders, and evaluation of the impact on clinical sites. Use of a web-based platform has facilitated updates to the TeenBP algorithm and to the message content. In addition, the web-based platform has allowed for development of a sophisticated display of patient-specific information at the point of care. In the TeenBP pilot, conducted at a single pediatric and family practice site with six clinicians, over a five-month period, more than half of BPs in the hypertensive range were clinically recognized. Furthermore, in this small pilot the TeenBP clinical decision support (CDS) was accepted by providers and clinical staff. Effectiveness of the TeenBP CDS will be determined in a two-year cluster-randomized clinical trial, currently underway at 20 primary care sites. Use of technology to extract and display clinically relevant data stored within the EHR may be a useful tool for improving recognition of adolescent hypertension during busy primary care visits. In the future, the methods developed specifically for TeenBP are likely to be translatable to a wide range of acute and chronic issues affecting children and adolescents.
    08/2015; 3(2):1142. DOI:10.13063/2327-9214.1142
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Elevated blood pressure in childhood may predict increased cardiovascular risk in young adulthood. The Task Force on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure in Children and Adolescents recommends that blood pressure be measured in children aged 3 years or older at all health care visits. Guidelines from both Bright Futures and the Expert Panel of Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents recommend annual blood pressure screening. Adherence to these guidelines is unknown. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess compliance with blood pressure screening recommendations in 2 integrated health care delivery systems. We analyzed electronic health records of 103,693 subjects aged 3 to 17 years. Probability of blood pressure measurement documented in the electronic health record was modeled as a function of visit type (well-child vs nonwell-child); patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index; health care use; insurance type; and type of office practice or clinic department (family practice or pediatrics). Results: Blood pressure was measured at 95% of well-child visits and 69% of nonwell-child outpatient visits. After adjusting for potential confounders, the percentage of nonwell-child visits with measurements increased linearly with patient age (P < .001). Overall, the proportion of children with annual blood pressure measurements was high and increased with age. Family practice clinics were more likely to adhere to blood pressure measurement guidelines compared with pediatric clinics (P < .001). Conclusion: These results show good compliance with recommendations for routine blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents. Findings can inform the development of EHR-based clinical decision support tools to augment blood pressure screening and recognition of prehypertension and hypertension in pediatric patients.
    Preventing chronic disease 07/2015; 12:E118. DOI:10.5888/pcd12.140562 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Along with other childhood cancer survivors (CCS), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at high risk of treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities may be exacerbated by inadequate physical activity (PA). Relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors have not been well described in CCS with HCT. PA (self-report), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), endurance (six-minute walk test), handgrip strength, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in 119 HCT survivors and 66 sibling controls aged ≥18 years. Adjusted comparisons between HCT survivors and controls and between categories of low and high PA, mobility, endurance, and strength were performed with linear regression. Among HCT survivors, the high PA group had lower waist circumference (WC) (81.9±2.5 v 88.6±3.1 cm±standard error (SE), P=.009) than the low PA group, while the high endurance group had lower WC (77.8±2.6 v 87.8±2.5 cm±SE, P=.0001) and percent fat mass (33.6±1.8 v 39.4±1.7 %±SE, P=.0008) and greater insulin sensitivity (IS) (10.9±1.0 v 7.42±1.14 mg/kg/min±SE via euglycemic insulin clamp, P=.001) than the low endurance group. Differences were greater in HCT survivors than in controls for WC between low and high PA groups, triglycerides between low and high mobility groups, and WC, systolic blood pressure, and IS between low and high endurance groups (all Pinteraction <.05). Higher endurance was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in HCT survivors, suggesting that interventions directed to increase endurance in survivors may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 04/2015; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.04.007 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decreased insulin sensitivity, also referred to as insulin resistance (IR), is a fundamental abnormality in patients with type 2 diabetes and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While IR predisposition is heritable, the genetic basis remains largely unknown. The GENEticS of Insulin Sensitivity consortium conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for direct measures of insulin sensitivity, such as euglycemic clamp or insulin suppression test, in 2,764 European individuals, with replication in an additional 2,860 individuals. The presence of a nonsynonymous variant of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) [rs1208 (803A>G, K268R)] was strongly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity that was independent of BMI. The rs1208 "A" allele was nominally associated with IR-related traits, including increased fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and coronary artery disease. NAT2 acetylates arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens, but predicted acetylator NAT2 phenotypes were not associated with insulin sensitivity. In a murine adipocyte cell line, silencing of NAT2 ortholog Nat1 decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake, increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, and decreased adipocyte differentiation, while Nat1 overexpression produced opposite effects. Nat1-deficient mice had elevations in fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides and decreased insulin sensitivity, as measured by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, with intermediate effects in Nat1 heterozygote mice. Our results support a role for NAT2 in insulin sensitivity.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2015; 125(4). DOI:10.1172/JCI74692 · 13.22 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; 114(2):S123-S124. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.12.284 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although paediatric growth charts are recommended for weight assessment prior to age 20, many teenagers transition earlier to adult care where absolute body mass index (BMI) is used. This study examines concordance of weight classification in older teenagers using paediatric percentiles and adult thresholds. BMI from 23 640 US teens ages 18-19 years were classified using paediatric BMI percentile criteria for underweight (< 5th), normal (5th to < 85th), overweight (85th to < 95th), obesity (≥ 95th) and severe obesity (≥ 120% × 95th percentile) and adult BMI (kg m(-2) ) criteria for underweight (< 18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9) and obesity: class I (30-34.9), class II (35-39.9) and class III (≥ 40). Concordance was examined using the kappa (κ) statistic. Blood pressure (BP) from the same visit was classified hypertensive for BP ≥ 140/90. The majority of visits (72.8%) occurred in adult primary care. Using paediatric/adult criteria, 3.4%/5.2% were underweight, 66.6%/58.8% normal weight, 15.7%/21.7% overweight, 14.3%/14.3% obese and 4.9%/6.0% severely/class II-III obese, respectively. Paediatric and adult classification for underweight, normal, overweight and obesity were concordant for 90.3% (weighted κ 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.88]). For severe obesity, BMI ≥ 120% × 95th percentile showed high agreement with BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) (κ 0.89 [0.88-0.91]). Normal-weight males and moderately obese females by paediatric BMI percentile criteria who were discordantly classified into higher adult weight strata had a greater proportion with hypertensive BP compared with concordantly classified counterparts. Strong agreement exists between US paediatric BMI percentile and adult BMI classification for older teenagers. Adult BMI classification may optimize BMI tracking and risk stratification during transition from paediatric to adult care. © 2015 World Obesity.
    Pediatric Obesity 01/2015; 10(5). DOI:10.1111/ijpo.274 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gold standard measurement of insulin resistance (IR), the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (ie, IR adjusted for lean body mass [Mlbm]: insulinstimulated glucose uptake = insulin sensitivity/resistance),1,2 is technically challenging, invasive, and expensive, limiting its clinical usefulness. Surrogate measures of IR, including fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR),3 require a blood sample, show only moderate correlation with direct measures of IR in children,2 and vary greatly among laboratories.4 A noninvasive screening tool easy to perform in the office that provides an acceptable estimate of IR risk is needed. It has been proposed that wrist circumference (WrC) may be a good surrogate in children as a simple, noninvasive marker of IR.5 A close cross-sectional relationship between pediatric WrC and HOMA-IR has been reported in overweight youth5 and supported by recent findings that wrist breadth was associated with HOMA-IR in normal-weight children.6 We hypothesized that childhood WrC would positively predict adult IR as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. We also assessed HOMA-IR to provide a direct comparison to the previous cross-sectional studies.
    Journal of Pediatrics 01/2015; 166(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.011 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to measure the linearity of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation with measures of total body adiposity to determine whether a threshold exists and to explore the association with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults.Methods Using a cross-sectional design, data were obtained from 723 adults (324 females) age 19-47 years. Body mass index ranged from 15 to 52 kg/m2. Segmented linear regression was used to identify sex-specific percent body fat thresholds at which VAT slope changes. Linear regression measured the association of VAT mass, total fat mass, and subcutaneous fat with cardiometabolic risk factors above and below each threshold.ResultsAdiposity thresholds were identified at 23.4% body fat in males and 38.3% body fat in females beyond which the slope of VAT per unit of percent body fat increased to strongly positive. Males and females above these adiposity thresholds had significant dyslipidemia (P < 0.001), increased insulin resistance (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass across all depots.Conclusions From these cross-sectional data, the following were inferred: the accumulation of VAT mass is not linear with increasing adiposity; increases in visceral accumulation above threshold are associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk in males and females independent of total body fat.
    Obesity 12/2014; 23(2). DOI:10.1002/oby.20961 · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at high risk of developing treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Late effects can be exacerbated by low physical activity (PA) levels. Relationships between PA and cardiovascular risk factors during childhood have not been well described in CCS.ProcedurePA and cardiovascular risk factors were measured cross-sectionally in 319 CCS and 208 sibling controls aged 9–18 years. Comparisons between CCS and controls and associations of outcomes with PA (dichotomized at 60 min/day or treated as continuous) were performed with linear regression.ResultsAmong CCS, the high PA group had lower percent fat mass (24.4% vs. 29.8%, P < 0.0001), abdominal subcutaneous fat (67.9 vs. 97.3 cm3, P = 0.0004), and abdominal visceral fat (20.0 vs. 24.9 cm3, P = 0.007) and greater lean body mass (41.3 vs. 39.5 kg, P = 0.009) than the low PA group. Comparing CCS to controls, differences in waist circumference (Pinteraction = 0.04), percent fat mass (Pinteraction = 0.04), and abdominal subcutaneous (Pinteraction = 0.02) and visceral (Pinteraction = 0.004) fat between low and high PA groups were greater in CCS than controls, possibly due to greater overall adiposity in CCS.Conclusions High PA in CCS resulted in an improved cardiovascular profile, consisting primarily of lower fat mass and greater lean mass, similar to that observed in controls. This suggests interventions directed to increase PA in CCS may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2014; 62(2). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25276 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and body mass index (BMI) associated with initiation and continued use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in healthy adolescents. Study design: This observational, matched cohort study was conducted in 2 large health systems. Utilizing claims and electronic medical records, we identified adolescents 14-17.9 years of age initiating medium-dose COCs (containing 30 or 35 (μg of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent and a progestin) between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 with a baseline and at least 1 follow-up blood pressure (BP) and BMI. COC-users were matched 1:2 by age, race/ethnicity, and site to controls (COC-nonusers). All BPs and BMIs recorded during outpatient visits starting 1 month prior to COC initiation (index date for controls), through December 31, 2010 were collected. Mixed model linear regression with random intercepts and slopes were then used to estimate changes in SBP, DBP, and BMI over time. Results: The 510 adolescent COC-users and 912 controls did not differ significantly by age, race/ethnicity, insurance, and baseline SBP, DBP, or BMI. After adjusting for baseline values, over a median of 18 months follow-up, COC-users had an decrease in SBP of 0.07 mm Hg/mo, and controls had an increase of 0.02 mm Hg/mo (P = .65). Similarly, DBP decreased by 0.007 mm Hg/mo in COC-users vs 0.006 mm Hg/mo in controls (P = .99). BMI increased by 0.04 (kg/m(2))/mo in COC-users vs 0.025 (kg/m(2))/mo in controls (P = .09). Conclusions: These data should provide reassurance to patients and providers regarding the lack of significant associations between COC-use and BMI or BP changes in adolescents.
    Journal of Pediatrics 09/2014; 165(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.07.048 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9 to 11 years and 17 to 21 years. Methods and results: We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides (age, 10-19 years). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with body mass index, particularly for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese when compared with that in normal weight children). Conclusions: Lipid screening was uncommon in 9- to 11-year olds and was performed in a minority of 17- to 19-year olds during 2007 to 2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 08/2014; 7(5). DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.000842 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) generally demonstrates a stronger relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors than total body fat or subcutaneous adipose tissue.Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare VAT estimated in children by total volume dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a gold standard measurement, single slice (L4–L5) computed tomography (CT).MethodsA total of 329 (152 females, 177 males) children ages 6–18 years (mean age 12.3 ± 3.6) and with average body mass index percentile of 54.9% (3–99%) had their VAT estimated by both CT and DXA. Linear association between methods was measured using Pearson's correlation. Multiple linear regressions compared the associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and both CT-VAT and DXA-VAT, respectively.ResultsIn children, DXA-VAT was correlated significantly with CT-VAT, with a stronger relationship in overweight and obese children. Multiple regression analysis showed that both estimates of VAT were significantly associated with lipids and insulin sensitivity, measured by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Additionally, DXA-VAT was associated with diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model of insulin resistance and fasting insulin, but CT-VAT was not.Conclusion In children, total volume DXA-VAT and single slice CT-VAT are significantly correlated and each demonstrates similar associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests that DXA is a useful and valid method for estimation of VAT in children.
    Pediatric Obesity 08/2014; 10(3). DOI:10.1111/ijpo.249 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Despite the significant prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in children, few studies have assessed their combined impact on healthcare costs. This study estimates healthcare costs related to BP and BMI in children and adolescents. Study design: Prospective dynamic cohort study of 71,617 children aged 3 to 17 years with 208,800 child years of enrollment in integrated health systems in Colorado or Minnesota between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Methods: Generalized linear models were used to calculate standardized annual estimates of total, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs, outpatient utilization, and receipt of diagnostic and evaluation tests associated with BP status and BMI status. Results: Total annual costs were significantly lower in children with normal BP ($736, SE = $15) and prehypertension ($945, SE = $10) than children with hypertension ($1972, SE = $74) (P <.001, each comparison), adjusting for BMI. Total annual cost for children below the 85th percentile of BMI ($822, SE = $8) was significantly lower than for children between the 85th and 95th percentiles ($954, SE = $45) and for children at or above the 95th percentile ($937, SE = $13) (P <.001, each), adjusting for HT. Conclusions: This study shows strong associations of prehypertension and hypertension, independent of BMI, with healthcare costs in children. Although BMI status was also statistically significantly associated with costs, the major influence on cost in this large cohort of children and adolescents was BP status. Costs related to elevated BMI may be systematically overestimated in studies that do not adjust for BP status.
    The American journal of managed care 08/2014; 20(8):622-628. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the association of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, independent of total body fat, with cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance among youth. Visceral and subcutaneous fat, percent total body fat, insulin resistance (adjusted for lean body mass: Mlbm), blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipids were obtained in 472 youth ages 6-18 years. Linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, and percent total body fat, was used to evaluate associations of visceral and subcutaneous fat with cardiometabolic risk factors. Visceral fat was associated inversely with Mlbm (p=0.003) and positively with fasting insulin (p=0.002) and triglycerides (p=0.002). Visceral fat levels above the mean were associated inversely with HDL cholesterol (p=0.002), and positively systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.0001). Subcutaneous fat was associated inversely with Mlbm (p=0.003) and HDL cholesterol (p<0.05), and positively with fasting glucose (p<0.05), fasting insulin (p=0.0003), systolic blood pressure (p=0.005), and triglycerides (p=0.003). Subcutaneous fat levels above the mean were associated with non-HDL cholesterol (p=0.0002). These findings suggest that there may be a threshold level of visceral and subcutaneous fat (regardless of total body fat), that when exceeded in childhood, is more likely to be associated with many cardiometabolic risk factors. Triglycerides and insulin resistance appear to be associated with these fat depots at even lower thresholds of abdominal adiposity.
    04/2014; 4(2):101-107. DOI:10.1111/cob.12044
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Newer approaches for classifying gradations of pediatric obesity by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th percentile have recently been recommended in the management and tracking of obese children. Examining the prevalence and persistence of severe obesity using such methods along with the associations with other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is important for characterizing the clinical significance of severe obesity classification methods. This retrospective study was conducted in an integrated healthcare delivery system to characterize obesity and obesity severity in children and adolescents by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th BMI percentile, to examine tracking of obesity status over 2-3 years, and to examine associations with blood pressure. Moderate obesity was defined by BMI 100-119 % of the 95th percentile and severe obesity by BMI >=120 % x 95th percentile. Hypertension was defined by 3 consecutive blood pressures >=95th percentile (for age, sex and height) on separate days and was examined in association with obesity severity. Among 117,618 children aged 6-17 years with measured blood pressure and BMI at a well-child visit during 2007-2010, the prevalence of obesity was 17.9 % overall and was highest among Hispanics (28.9 %) and blacks (20.5 %) for boys, and blacks (23.2 %) and Hispanics (21.5 %) for girls. Severe obesity prevalence was 5.6 % overall and was highest in 12-17 year old Hispanic boys (10.6 %) and black girls (9.5 %). Subsequent BMI obtained 2-3 years later also demonstrated strong tracking of severe obesity. Stratification of BMI by percentage above the 95th BMI percentile was associated with a graded increase in the risk of hypertension, with severe obesity contributing to a 2.8-fold greater odds of hypertension compared to moderate obesity. Severe obesity was found in 5.6 % of this community-based pediatric population, varied by gender and race/ethnicity (highest among Hispanics and blacks) and showed strong evidence for persistence over several years. Increasing gradation of obesity was associated with higher risk for hypertension, with a nearly three-fold increased risk when comparing severe to moderate obesity, underscoring the heightened health risk associated with severe obesity in children and adolescents.
    International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2014; 2014(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2014-3
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are more insulin resistant (IR) and have higher levels of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors even while still children. This study examines specific treatment exposures associated with CV risk factors and IR. Methods: CCS age 9-18 years at study entry and in remission >5 years from diagnosis (n=319) and 208 sibling controls were recruited into this cross-sectional study that included physiologic assessment of IR (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and assessment of CV risk factors.. Regression and recursive tree modeling were used to ascertain treatment combinations associated with IR and CV risk. Results: Mean current age of CCS was 14.5yr, 54% were male (siblings 13.6yr, 54% male). Diagnoses included leukemia (35%), brain tumors (36%), solid tumors (33%) or lymphoma (6%). Among CCS, analysis of individual chemotherapy agents failed to find associations with CV risk factors or IR. Compared to siblings, IR was significantly higher in CCS who received platinum plus cranial radiation (CRT, 92% brain tumors) and in those who received steroids but no platinum (majority leukemia). IR did not differ between CCS who received surgery alone vs. siblings. Within survivor comparisons failed to elucidate treatment combinations that increased IR compared to those who received surgery only. Conclusions: Exposure to platinum, CRT or steroids is associated with IR and CV risk factors and should be taken into consideration in the development of screening recommendations for CV risk. Impact: Earlier identification of CCS who may benefit from targeted prevention efforts may reduce their future risk of CV disease.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 09/2013; 22(11). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0610 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, p<0.001) even though hours of television (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.
    BMC Pediatrics 09/2013; 13(1):133. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-133 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims Overweight and obesity among US children and adolescents is an important public health problem. Conditions associated with obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, are becoming more common in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in BMI percentile and incident prehypertension and hypertension in a cohort of children and adolescents. Methods Study subjects were 23,578 patients, ages 3-17, with three or more outpatient primary care visits between 2007 and 2010 at HealthPartners Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, or Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Data were extracted from electronic health records (EHR). Change in BMI was defined as: increase, decrease, stayed obese, stayed overweight, and stayed healthy weight using established BMI percentile cut-points. Incident prehypertension and hypertension were defined using blood pressures and diagnosis codes from the EHR. We used time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard of change in BMI percentile with incident prehypertension and hypertension. Results Over a median 2.6 years follow-up, there were 7,232 cases of incident prehypertension, 148 diagnoses of incident hypertension, and 107 additional cases of incident hypertension based on blood pressure data from the EHR. Seventy-one prehypertensives went on to develop hypertension. Those who stayed obese, stayed overweight, and increased BMI had increased hazard of incident prehypertension (1.96, 1.39, and 1.49, respectively) and increased hazard of incident hypertension (3.61, 1.21, and 1.83, respectively) compared with those who stayed healthy weight. Conclusions Persistently high BMI or increasing BMI over time was associated with pronounced increase in risk of both incident prehypertension and hypertension. Future research should examine factors associated with the development and recognition of hypertension.
    Clinical Medicine &amp Research 09/2013; 11(3):139. DOI:10.3121/cmr.2013.1176.ps3-29

Publication Stats

4k Citations
686.56 Total Impact Points


  • 1982–2015
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Vermont
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States