[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.
BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:180804. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between preoperative [-2]proPSA, the Gleason Score (GS) and the risk of non-organ-confined (NOC) disease in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods:Beckman Coulter Access immunoassay was used to study serum specimens of 381 patients enrolled in a prostate cancer (PCa) early detection program. Inclusion criteria were three or more available serum specimens over 4 years before diagnosis. The values obtained were correlated with the GSs and pathological stages of specimens obtained at RP.Results:[-2]proPSA levels were significantly higher in the cancer group (n=208) than in the benign group (n=173). Already 4 years before diagnosis [-2]proPSA differed significantly between PCa and benign prostate in all measured time points, however, highest prediction value was 2 and 1 years before diagnosis (P<0.001). When stratified [-2]proPSA levels according to GS of RP specimens, [-2]proPSA was highest in patients with GS8 and lowest in those with GS6.The difference in [-2]proPSA values between GS8 and GS7 was highly significant (P<0.01) already 3 years before diagnosis. Investigating the correlation between extraprostatic extension and the preoperative [-2]proPSA levels we found preoperative [-2]proPSA values significantly higher in men with NOC PCa compared with organ-confined (OC) cancers.The highest predictive value of [-2]proPSA to differ between OC and extraprostatic extension was found 3 and 2 years before RP.Conclusions:Patients with high [-2]proPSA levels in the years before cancer diagnosis are at a higher risk of having aggressive PCas. Thus, the [-2]proPSA should be included in the treatment decision-making for managing screen-detected PCa.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 29 October 2013; doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.50.
Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 10/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: We retrospectively analyzed the risk associated with undergrading Gleason score 6 (GS6) prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy, in patients with preoperative PSA levels of 2-3,99 and 4-10 ng/ml.
A total of 674 patients with needle biopsy-diagnosed GS6 PCa, who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1995 and 2011, were evaluated. Patients were stratified by preoperative PSA levels into low PSA (2-3,99 ng/ml) and an intermediate PSA of 4-10 ng/ml. Subsequently, the percentage of patients with extracapsular disease (pathological stage ≥pT3a) and/or positive surgical margins was determined among those whose RP GS was still 6 and compared to undergraded cases.
Out of 674 patients with needle biopsy-diagnosed GS6 PCa, 36.2% had no difference between biopsy and RP GS while 11.4% had been overgraded and 52.4% of patients were undergraded at biopsy. Stratified according to preoperative PSA levels, there was a significantly higher incidence of undergrading in the intermediate PSA group. Among those with ≥pT3a tumors, 74.1 % were undergraded in needle biopsy, out of which 67.7% had intermediate PSA levels and 32.3% low PSA levels. Among patients with R1 resections 75.1 % were underdiagnosed, out of which 75.9% had intermediate PSA levels. Stratifying these data according to preoperative PSA levels, ≥pT3a tumors and R1 resection were found significantly more often in the intermediate-PSA group.
The incidence of adverse pathological findings, including extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margins, is significantly higher in patients with undergraded biopsy GS6. Low preoperative PSA levels improved the correlation between primary and final GS and led to the reduction of unfavorable pathological findings.
Anticancer research 12/2012; 32(12):5481-5. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. The diagnosis is based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy. These techniques have considerable limitations, which result in unnecessary biopsies. Furthermore the biopsies are associated with morbidity and costs. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Standard gray-scale ultrasound has a low sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer detection. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: New ultrasound technologies, including color- and power Doppler ultrasound, contrast enhanced US and real-time sonoelastography have shown to improve prostate cancer diagnosis. PERFORMANCE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound has shown a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 95%), a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88.8% for prostate cancer detection. Real-time sonoelastography has shown a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 81% and NPV of 91% for prostate cancer diagnosis. ACHIEVEMENTS: Most studies show that these new ultrasound modalities demonstrate a 1.5 to 2.5 times higher detection of prostate cancer per biopsy specimen compared with systematic biopsy. Multicenter studies results are at present lacking but are, however ongoing. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: In patients with suspected prostate cancer (elevated PSA, suspicious DRE) these new ultrasound techniques should be used. These techniques can detect prostate cancer and allow a targeted biopsy approach.
Der Radiologe 11/2011; 51(11):938, 940-6. · 0.47 Impact Factor