[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: TRIM5alpha is a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins that restricts retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. The restriction requires an interaction between the viral capsid lattice and the B30.2/SPRY domain of TRIM5alpha. Previously, we determined that two SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the B30.2/SPRY domain of human TRIM5alpha (huTRIM5alpha) were important for the restriction of N-tropic Murine Leukemia Virus. Here, we examined whether SUMO expression and the SIM1 and SIM2 motifs in rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha (rhTRIM5alpha) are similarly important for Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 (HIV-) restriction. RESULTS: We found that mutation of SIM1 and SIM2 of rhTRIM5alpha abolished the restriction of HIV-1 virus. Further, knockdown of SUMO-1 in rhTRIM5alpha expressing cells abolished restriction of HIV-1. These results may be due, in part, to the ability of SUMO-1 to stabilize rhTRIM5alpha protein expression, as SUMO-1 knockdown increased rhTRIM5alpha turnover and the mutations in SIM1 and SIM2 led to more rapid degradation than the wild type protein. The NF-kappaB signaling ability of rhTRIM5alpha was also attenuated by SUMO-1 knockdown. Finally, upon inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export with Leptomycin B (LMB), wild type rhTRIM5alpha localized to SUMO-1 bodies in the nucleus, while the SIM1 and SIM2 mutants did not localize to SUMO-1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the rhTRIM5alpha B30.2/SPRY domain is not only important for the recognition of the HIV-1 CA, but it is also important for its association with SUMO-1 or SUMO-1 modified proteins. These interactions help to maintain TRIM5alpha protein levels and its nuclear localization into specific nuclear bodies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-synuclein dysregulation is a critical aspect of Parkinson's disease pathology. Recent studies have observed that α-synuclein aggregates are cytotoxic to cells in culture and that this toxicity can be spread between cells. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this cytotoxicity and spread are poorly characterized. Recent studies of viruses and bacteria, which achieve their cytoplasmic entry by rupturing intracellular vesicles, have utilized the redistribution of galectin proteins as a tool to measure vesicle rupture by these organisms. Using this approach, we demonstrate that α-synuclein aggregates can induce the rupture of lysosomes following their endocytosis in neuronal cell lines. This rupture can be induced by the addition of α-synuclein aggregates directly into cells as well as by cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. We also observe that lysosomal rupture by α-synuclein induces a cathepsin B dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target cells. Finally, we observe that α-synuclein aggregates can induce inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. Lysosomal rupture is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which are well established aspects of Parkinson's disease, thus connecting these aspects of Parkinson's disease to the propagation of α-synuclein pathology in cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62143. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins are involved in many cellular functions such as cell signaling, apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immune modulation. TRIM5 proteins, including TRIM5α and TRIM-Cyp, are known to possess antiretroviral activity against many different retroviruses. Besides being retroviral restriction factors, TRIM5 proteins participate in other cellular functions that have recently emerged in the study of TRIM5α. In this review, we discuss properties of TRIM5α such as cytoplasmic body formation, protein turnover, and trafficking. Also, we discuss recent insights into innate immune modulation mediated by TRIM5α, highlighting the various functions TRIM5α has in cellular processes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TRIM5 proteins are cellular restriction factors that prevent retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. Multiple experiments indicate that restriction activity requires accessory host factors, including E2-enzymes. To better understand the mechanism of restriction, we conducted yeast-two hybrid screens to identify proteins that bind to two TRIM5 orthologues.
The only cDNAs that scored on repeat testing with both TRIM5 orthologues were the proteasome subunit PSMC2 and ubiquitin. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated an interaction between TRIM5α and PSMC2, as well as numerous other proteasome subunits. Fluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of proteasomes and TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis indicated that the interaction between TRIM5 and PSMC2 was direct. Previous imaging experiments demonstrated that, when cells are challenged with fluorescently-labeled HIV-1 virions, restrictive TRIM5α orthologues assemble cytoplasmic bodies around incoming virion particles. Following virus challenge, we observed localization of proteasome subunits to rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies that contained fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virions.
Taken together, the results presented here suggest that localization of the proteasome to TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies makes an important contribution to TRIM5α-mediated restriction.