[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hesperidin is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, "Chen Pi," and recently was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we were interested in comparing the effects of hesperidin and hesperidin-3'-O-methylether on phosphodiesterase inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. In the present results, hesperidin-3'-O-methylether, but not hesperidin, at 30 μmol/kg (p.o.) significantly attenuated the enhanced pause (P(enh)) value, suppressed the increases in numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in the serum and BALF, and enhanced the level of total IgG(2a) in the serum of sensitized and challenged mice, suggesting that hesperidin-3'-O-methylether is more potent than hesperidin in suppression of AHR and immunoregulation. The different potency between them may be due to their aglycons, because these two flavanone glycosides should be hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase after oral administration. Neither influenced xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that they may have few or no adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion. In conclusion, hesperidin-3'-O-methylether is more potent in phosphodiesterase inhibition and suppression of AHR and has higher therapeutic (PDE4(H)/PDE4(L)) ratio than hesperidin. Thus, hesperidin-3'-O-methylether may have more potential for use in treating allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:908562. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury results in acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is no standard therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome but supportive care. Stem cells offer a new therapeutic potential for tissue regeneration as a result of their self-renewal, multipotency, and paracrine capabilities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects and the mechanisms of systemic human orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cell transplantation on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.
Prospective, randomized, controlled study.
University-affiliated research institute.
Male BALB/c mice.
Twenty-five micrograms lipopolysaccharide in 50 μL sterile saline or 50 μL of sterile saline was delivered through intratracheal injection. Twenty mins later, the animals were further randomized into subgroups that received either a tail vein injection of 3 × 10 orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline or 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline.
Low immunogenicity and immune-tolerated of orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells were observed in this xenotransplanted model. Orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation, which was evidenced by a decrease in total protein concentration and neutrophil counts in alveolar fluid through bronchoalveolar lavage, reduced endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability as well as neutrophil (Ly6G-expressing cells) and macrophage (CD68-expressing cells) infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of CD14, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and transforming growth factor-β in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells. Orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells not only reduced the circulation numbers of macrophages and neutrophils (CD11b-expressing cells), but also decreased systemic proinflammatory chemokine levels such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1-γ, B-lymphocyte chemoattractant, interleukin-12, and subsequent circulation helper T cell (CD4-expressing cells) numbers. Furthermore, few human orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cells were detectable in the recipient lung after acute inflammation subsided.
Systemic orbital fat-derived stem/stromal cell transplantation was effective in modulating inflammation during acute lung injury. The therapeutic effect was attributed to the inhibition of acute inflammatory responses.
Critical care medicine 12/2011; 40(4):1245-53. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the roles of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), mitogen stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways in thrombin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in alveolar macrophages (NR8383). Treatment of NR8383 cells with thrombin caused an increase in iNOS expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of NR8383 cells with SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl]-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole, a p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor), and SP600125 (anthra[1-9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one, a JNK inhibitor) all inhibited thrombin-induced iNOS expression. Stimulation of cells with thrombin caused an increase in p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation. Treatment of cells with Ro 31-8220 (an MSK1 inhibitor) and MSK1 small interfering RNA (MSK1 siRNA) both inhibited thrombin-induced iNOS expression. Thrombin caused time-dependent activation of MSK1 Ser531 phosphorylation, which was inhibited by SB203580 and PD98059, but not by SP600125. Treatment of cells with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) inhibited thrombin-induced iNOS expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of NR8383 cells with thrombin induced κB-luciferase activity and p65 Ser276 phosphorylation. Thrombin-induced increases in p65 Ser276 phosphorylation and κB-luciferase activity were inhibited by SB203580, PD98059, Ro 31-8220, and MSK1 siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the signaling pathways of MAPK, MSK1, and NF-κB play important roles in thrombin-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages.
European journal of pharmacology 12/2011; 672(1-3):180-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). While hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether (HDME) is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs) in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
PDE1~5 activities were measured using a two-step procedure. The binding of HDME on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was determined by replacing 2 nM [3H]-rolipram. AHR was assessed using the FlexiVent system and barometric plethysmography. Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. Xylazine (10 mg/kg)/ketamine (70 mg/kg)-induced anesthesia was performed.
HDME revealed selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition with a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L) ratio of 35.5 in vitro. In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o.)) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL) and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and decreased enhanced pause (Penh) values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in the numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of these mice. In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice.
HDME exerted anti-inflammatory effects, including suppression of AHR, and reduced expressions of inflammatory cells and cytokines in this murine model, which appears to be suitable for studying the effects of drugs on atypical asthma and COPD, and for screening those on typical asthma. However, HDME did not influnce xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Thus HDME may have the potential for use in treating typical and atypical asthma, and COPD.
Journal of Biomedical Science 11/2011; 18:84. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of different ventilatory supports on the predictive performance of breathing pattern variability for extubation outcomes in intensive care unit patients.
A prospective measurement of retrospectively analyzed breathing pattern variability in a medical center.
Sixty-eight consecutive and ready-for-weaning patients were divided into success (n=45) and failure (n=23) groups based on their extubation outcomes.
Breath-to-breath analyses of peak inspiratory flow, total breath duration, tidal volume, and rapid shallow breathing index were performed for three 30-min periods while patients randomly received T-piece, 100% inspiratory automatic tube compensation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure, and 5 cm H2O pressure support ventilation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure trials. Coefficient of variations and data dispersion (standard descriptor values SD1 and SD2 of the Poincaré plot) were analyzed to serve as breathing pattern variability indices.
Under all three trials, breathing pattern variability in extubation failure patients was smaller than in extubation success patients. Compared to the T-piece trial, 100% inspiratory automatic tube compensation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure and 5 cm H2O pressure support ventilation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure decreased the ability of certain breathing pattern variability indices to discriminate extubation success from extubation failure. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of these breathing pattern variability indices were: T-piece (0.73-0.87)>100% inspiratory automatic tube compensation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (0.60-0.79)>5 cm H2O pressure support ventilation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (0.53-0.76). Analysis of the classification and regression tree indicated that during the T-piece trial, a SD1 of peak inspiratory flow>3.36 L/min defined a group including all extubation success patients. Conversely, the combination of a SD1 of peak inspiratory flow ≤3.36 L/min and a coefficient of variations of rapid shallow breathing index ≤0.23 defined a group of all extubation failure patients. The decision strategies using SD1 of peak inspiratory flow and coefficient of variations of rapid shallow breathing index measured during 100% inspiratory automatic tube compensation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure and 5 cm H2O pressure support ventilation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure trials achieved a less clear separation of extubation failure from extubation success.
Since 100% inspiratory automatic tube compensation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure and 5 cm H2O pressure support ventilation with 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure reduce the predictive performance of breathing pattern variability, breathing pattern variability measurement during the T-piece trial is the best choice for predicting extubation outcome in intensive care unit patients patients.
Critical care medicine 06/2011; 39(10):2253-62. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is commonly used clinically for predicting the outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation. We compared the RSBI and its predictive accuracies measured under 5 ventilatory strategies before weaning trials. Ninety-eight patients were included and divided into successful (n=71) and failed (n=27) groups based on their weaning outcomes. The RSBI was randomly measured when patients spontaneously breathed 21% O2 with no ventilator support (the control strategy) or were connected to ventilator breathing with 21% or 40% O2 and 0 or 5 cm H2O of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We found that the RSBI values did not exhibit significant differences among the 4 ventilator strategies, but all were higher than that of the control; this remained valid in the non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subgroup, but not in the COPD subgroup. Values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the RSBI for the 5 strategies were 0.51-0.62 with no significant difference between any 2 strategies. The incidences of adverse reactions (respiratory rate > or =35 breaths/min or oxygen saturation < or =89% for > or =1 min) were relatively high for the 21% O2-0 and 5 cm H2O CPAP groups (20 patients each) and low for the 40% O(2)-5 cmH2O CPAP group (2 patients). We concluded that RSBI values increased with the use of a ventilator, but not with additional applications of 40% 02 and/or 5 cm H2O CPAP. Their accuracies for predicting weaning outcome were unaltered by any of these interventions, but the incidence of adverse reactions increased with the use of the ventilator and decreased with additional 40% O2 supplementation.
The Chinese journal of physiology 02/2010; 53(1):1-10. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of mechanical ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by wood smoke inhalation in anesthetized mice. Animals received challenges of air, 30 breaths of smoke (30SM) or 60 breaths of smoke (60SM) and were then ventilated with a VT of 10 ml/kg (10VT) or 16 ml/kg (16VT). After 4-h mechanical ventilation, the bronchoalveolar-capillary permeability, pulmonary infiltration of inflammatory cells, total lung injury score and pulmonary expressions of interleukin-1beta and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mRNA and proteins in the 30SM+16VT and 60SM+16VT groups were greater than those in the 30SM+10VT and 60SM+10VT groups, respectively. Additionally, the wet/dry weight ratio of lung tissues and lung epithelial cell apoptosis in the 60SM+16VT group were greater than those in the 60SM+10VT group. These differences between the 16VT and 10VT groups were not seen in animals with air challenge. Thus, mechanical ventilation with a moderately high VT in mice exacerbates ALI induced by wood smoke inhalation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of tachykinins in airway neurogenic responses occurring in the early phase of endotoxemia. Forty-eight anesthetized guinea pigs were evenly divided into six groups pretreated with either saline vehicle, CP-96,345 (a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist), SR-48,968 (a tachykinin NK(2) receptor antagonist) or CP-96,345 and SR-48,968 in combination. Animals then received an intravenous injection of either saline (the vehicle for endotoxin) or endotoxin (30 mg/kg). Total lung resistance (R(L)) and dynamic lung compliance (C(dyn)) were continuously measured before and 30 min after administration of saline or endotoxin. Airway microvascular leakage was assessed at the end of the observation period. Endotoxin significantly increased R(L) and decreased C(dyn) 10 min after intravenous endotoxin injection. Plasma extravasation significantly increased in the trachea, main bronchi and intrapulmonary airways with endotoxin administration. These changes in lung mechanics were abolished by SR-48,968, but were unaffected by CP-96,345. The plasma extravasation was largely attenuated by CP-96,345 and/or SR-48,968. We conclude that (1) endogenous tachykinins play an important role in producing changes in lung mechanics and airway microvascular leakage during the early phase of endotoxemia and (2) activation of tachykinin NK(2) receptors is responsible for the former response, while activation of both tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors is involved in the latter response.
Journal of Biomedical Science 08/2002; 9(5):415-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor