[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information relating to the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among hospitalized pediatric patients is limited. This report describes results of national MRSA surveillance among Canadian hospitalized pediatric patients from 1995 to 2007.
Surveillance was laboratory-based. Clinical and epidemiologic data were obtained by reviewing the medical records. Standardized definitions were used to determine MRSA infection. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
A total of 1262 pediatric patients were newly identified as MRSA positive from 1995 to 2007. Ages ranged from newborn to 17.9 years, 49% were infected with MRSA (51% colonized), skin and soft tissue infections accounted for the majority (59%) of MRSA infections and 57% were epidemiologically classified as community acquired (CA). The most common epidemic strain types isolated were CMRSA2/USA100/800, CMRSA10/USA300 and CMRSA7/USA400. Overall, MRSA rates per 10,000 patient days increased from 0.08 to 3.88. Since 2005, overall rates of CA-MRSA per 10,000 patient days have dramatically increased while healthcare-associated MRSA rates remained relatively stable.
These data suggest that the increase in MRSA among hospitalized pediatric patients is largely driven by the emergence of CA-MRSA strains with skin and soft tissue infections representing the majority of MRSA infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality to hospitalized patients. The objective of this point prevalence study was to assess the burden of HAIs in the Canadian pediatric population, updating results reported from a similar study conducted in 2002.
A point prevalence survey of pediatric inpatients was conducted in February 2009 in 30 pediatric or combined adult/pediatric hospitals. Data pertaining to one 24-hour period were collected, including information on HAIs, microorganisms isolated, antimicrobials prescribed, and use of additional (transmission based) precautions. The following prevalent infections were included: pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, surgical site infection, viral respiratory infection, Clostridium difficile infection, viral gastroenteritis, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
One hundred eighteen patients had 1 or more HAI, corresponding to a prevalence of 8.7% (n = 118 of 1353, 95% confidence interval: 7.2-10.2). Six patients had 2 infections. Bloodstream infections were the most frequent infection in neonates (3.0%), infants (3.1%), and children (3.5%). Among all patients surveyed, 16.3% were on additional precautions, and 40.1% were on antimicrobial agents, whereas 40.7% of patients with a HAI were on additional precautions, and 89.0% were on antimicrobial agents.
Overall prevalence of HAI in 2009 has remained similar to the prevalence reported from 2002. The unchanged prevalence of these infections nonetheless warrants continued vigilance on their prevention and control.
American journal of infection control 11/2011; 40(6):491-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.08.008 · 2.21 Impact Factor